AP Biology Genetics
gene that produces its characteristic phenotype only when its allele is identical
the version of genes someone has. (Not visible)
two different versions of that trait
two of the same trait
gene that produces the same phenotype in an organism whether or not the allele is identical
method of determining genotype
testcrosses that check for a dominance relationship between two alleles at a single locus
used to calculate the probability of a genotype
Law of Segregation
"Diploid cells have pairs of genes, or pairs of homologous chromosomes. The two genes of each pair are separated from one another during meiosis, so they end up in different gametes."
done to determine dominance relationship between alleles at two loci
law of Independant Assortment
"Genes are sorted into gametes independently of other genes"
two nonidentical alleles of a gene are both fully expressed in heterozygotes, so neither is dominant or recessive
one allele of a pair isnt fully dominant over its partner, so heterzygote's phenotype is between that of the homozygotes
Interactions between different gene products.
one gene that influences multiple traits
fibers that give elasticity to tissues of heart, skin, blood vessels, tendons, and other body parts.
all genes on a chromosome
enzyme that affects the coat color of Himalayan rabbits
other traits that occur in a range of small differences
the type of curve if a trait shows continuous variation
finger shape and movement are abnormal
diagnostic tool that helps determine the individual's diploid set of chromosomes
cartilage model of skeleton doesnt form properly. caused by an autosomal dominant allele
involuntary muscle movements increase as nervous system deteriorates. Caused by an autosomal dominant allele
Malnutrition, diarrhea, vomiting, damage to eyes, liver and brain, eventual death. caused by a recessive autosomal inheritance
mutated allele produces hutchinson-gilfork progeria syndrome. accelerated rate of aging and short life span.
x-linked recessive disorder; interferes with blood clotting.
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
muscle degeneration. genes of X encodes dystrophin, structural/support protein muscle cells
normal chromosomes have DNA sequences that are duplicated several times
loss of some portion of a chromosome
(cry of the cat) deletion of chromosome 5 causes mental impairment and an abnormally shaped larynx
part of the DNA sequence within the chromosome becomes oriented in the reverse direction, with no loss
part of a broken chromosome attaches to a different chromosome or to a different part of the same one
cells that normally have 3+ types of each chromosomes
1+ pairs of chromosomes do not seperate properly during mitosis or meiosis
only tricomis individuals who reach adulthood. upward slanting eyes, deep crease across sole of foot and palm of hand. moderate to severe mental impairment and heart problems
outcome of nondisjunction. feminizing effects: small testes and prostate glands, low sperm count, sparse body hair, enlarged breasts
taller than average, mild mental temperament
up to 8 weeks after fertilization
8+ weeks after fertilization
a syringe withfraws 20mL of amniotic fluid, which contains shed fetal cells and fetal waste
routine testing for alleles associated with genetic disorders. provides info on reproduction risks
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