EXAM #3 study guide

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socioemotional development and health (SEDH) study- Laboratory sessions; baseline (Self-reported Emotions, Blood pressure and pulse rate, Demographics & Covariates); problem solving tasks (Videotaped, Blood pressure and pulse rate, Self-reported Emotions) - conclusion; Compared to younger adults, older adults: Showed less affective and physiological reactivity to conflict, Were more likely to avoid conflict with their partner, May be better able to regulate their emotions in response to interpersonal stressors, but not necessarily general stressorsemotional intelligencethe ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotionsemotional intelligence 5 components- self awareness - self regulation - motivation - empathy - social skillsself-awareness- Understanding one's own goals and valuesself-regulation- controlling oneself toward larger goalssocial skills- Understanding how to interact with othersmotivation- Focusing on goalsempathy- Understanding others' emotions and experiences** ABC personality traits- Affect (mood, emotional responses) - Behavior - Cognition (ideas, thoughts)"five factor" or "big 5"- OCEAN - Openness to experience - Conscientiousness - Extraversion - Agreeableness - NeuroticismOCEAN- O decreases w/ age - C increases through midlife (remains stably high in later life) - E decreases w/ age - A increases w/ age - N decreases w/ ageopenness to experience- Creative - Imaginative - Curious - Open-minded - Deep thinkers - EX: high Harry Potter; low Dracoconscientiousness- Hardworking - Ambitious - Detail-oriented, thorough - Careful - Dependable, organized -EX: high Hermione; low Nevilleextraversion- Sociable, outgoing, talkative - Energetic, active - Assertive - High positive affect - EX: high George Weasley; low Snapeagreeableness- Friendly, sympathetic - Helpful - Selfless - Considerate - Trusting - EX: high Hagrid; Low VoldemortneuroticismAnxious/worried - Tense, uptight - Easily upset (high affect reactivity) - Emotional unstable - Moody - EX: high Ron Weasley; low Dumbledorepersonality development- Traits are very stable across adulthooderickson's stages of psychosocial development- Trust/Mistrust - Autonomy/Shame, - Initiative/Guilt - Industry/Inferiority - Identity/Role Confusion - Intimacy/Isolation - Generativity/Stagnation - Ego integrity/Despairintimacy vs. Isolation- Developmental task objective: Establish intimate relationship - Feeling insecure or being unable to find a mate → isolation - Trusting and fully sharing oneself with another → intimacy and loveGenerativity vs. Stagnation- Developmental task objective: Concern for the next generations - Stay self-absorbed → stagnation - Give back to society and the next generations → generativity - Midlife generativity → less depression and greater cognitive functioning in later lifeIntegrity vs. Despair- Developmental task objective: acceptance that one's life is ending - Regret or denial of death → despair - Positive, self-accepting life review → integritynarcissism- Inflated view of the self, lack of empathy or concern for others - Narcissism decreases across adulthood - Young adults today are more narcissistic than young adults 20 to 30 years agorank order stability- Relative standing (order) across individuals is stablemean level stability- Average scores for individuals remain the sameOCEAN with mean level changes- ↓ in Openness to experiences, Extraversion, Neuroticism - ↑ in Agreeableness - Conscientiousness peaks in midlife, then remains stably high in later lifeopenness to experiences trait combinations- Substance use - Risk taking - Longevity (creativity facet) - Older adults high on Openness -> greater likelihood of suicideconscientiousness trait combinations- Midlife career success - Reduced likelihood of mental disorders and physical illness - Positive health behaviors - Lower risk taking - Longevityextraversion trait combinations- Exercise compliance - Substance use - Greater peer acceptance (in childhood and adulthood) - Poorer overall health ratings - Mortality risk (cheerfulness facet)agreeableness trait combinations- Lower risk taking - Lower functional limitations - Prosocial behavior - Community leadershipneuroticism trait combinations- Greater functional limitations - Lower relationship quality - Less pronounced decreases in negative affect with age - Greater risk of dementia - Greater mortality risk - Higher suicide ratesocial convoys- The very close people who provide support to us throughout our livestypes of social networks- People who are closest to you, so close that you cannot imagine life without them - People who are close to you, but not as close - People that you interact with, but who are not as close to yousocial networks on aging and health- Across adulthood, although social network size decreases, there are: - ↓ conflicts/arguments with social partners - ↑ satisfaction with social relationships - ↑ positive emotions and ↓ negative emotions with social partnerssocial clock- Perceptions of developmental milestones, life events, and social roles that are appropriate for certain age-stages - Influenced by culture, cohort (generation), historical events, age, socialization, family background, religionon-time and off-time events- When life events are perceived to be "on-time" according to the social clock, we achieve greater well-being - "Off-time" events (e.g., starting one's career too late; having children too early) is linked to poorer well-beinghomogamydegree to which people are similar; greater when couples meet through school or a religious settingcohabitation- Living with a romantic partner outside of a marital relationship - More younger adults cohabit before marriage - Lower quality marriages & higher divorce rates, when: - Having children - Living together to see if things will "work out"** marital satisfaction- An overall assessment of how satisfied people are with their marriage** age and gender differences on marital satisfaction- Older (earlier born) cohorts are more satisfied with their marriages than younger (later born) cohorts are with their marriageshealth outcomes- Marriages are stronger predictors of health and well-being today than they were decades agoLGBTQ relationships reasons for marriage- Love and commitment - Opportunity to celebrate commitment - Financial incentives (e.g., tax breaks) - Legal reasons (e.g., hospital visitation rights; worried that rights would later be revoked)divorce- 40-50% of marriages in U.S. end in divorce - Average length of marriage before divorce occurs: 8 yrs - Average time to remarriage: 3.5 yrs - BUT: Divorce rates are declining!divorce impact on gender differences- Women are generally less satisfied with marriage than men - Women are more likely to initiate divorces (69%) - Men benefit more from marriage - Social support from wife - Extended social network through wifegottman's four horsemen of the apocalypse- Criticism - Contempt - Defensiveness - Stonewallingcriticism- Attacking partner's character or personality - Ex) "You are such a slob" - Better: "It frustrates me when you leave a mess in the bathroom"contempt- Disrespecting your partner - Ex) Rolling eyes at partner, cursing at partner, mocking partner - Better: - Try to pay attention to own behaviors (e.g., passive-aggressiveness) - Express appreciation to partnerdefensiveness- Not taking responsibility for one's actions - Ex) Making excuses, blaming partner - Better: - Listen to what partner is saying - Try to understand their perspective - Take some responsibility for conflictstonewalling- Becoming non-responsive to partner (develops over time) - Ex) Ignoring partner, disengaging from relationship - Women want to "talk it out" but men tend to get overwhelmed in conflict and stonewall - Better: take a break from conflict and try to calm down before discussing issue againwidowhood- Women live longer and tend to marry men who are older than them (heterosexual couples) - Women much more likely to be widowed than men, outliving partner by about 10 yrseffects of widowhood- Widowhood and divorce negatively influence finances (esp. for women) - Loneliness - Widowhood increases mortality risk for up to 10 yrs after the eventremarriage- Women are less likely to remarry compared to men - Women benefit more from remarriage, especially if they have children - "Living alone together": when two older adults form a romantic relationship but choose to keep separate living arrangementsparenting- Average age at first child for women = 30 yrs - Older age at birth is related to better parentingwork-family spillover- • When stressors in one domain of life (e.g., work) "spillover" and transfer to another life domain (e.g., family or home life) - Ex) Boss criticizes one's work->In a bad mood with spouse at home - People high on neuroticism->more negative emotions spilling over across work and family domains - People high on extraversion->more positive emotions spilling over across work and family domainscaregiving- Providing support and assistance to others on their activities of daily living (bathing, feeding, shopping)"the sandwich generation"- Middle-aged adults who have caregiving responsibilities for their aging parents and their own childrenformal caregiving- Paid carers (e.g., skilled nursing care, in-home nurse aid)informal caregiving- Unpaid work often for a spouse or older family memberwhy people work longer- Longer lives, healthier lives - Fewer manual labor jobs - Desire to contribute - Decline in pensions - Need/want more money - Fewer options for retirement benefits - Social Security incentives to work until age 70older worker stereotypes- Can they keep up to date? - Have they "checked out?" - Are they too frail to work? - Are they slower and less productive? - Can they use computers? - Workers in their 50's may have difficulty finding work if they are laid offolder worker truths- Are more reliable and miss fewer days - Make fewer mistakes - Have deeper institutional knowledge & skills - Have more experience to guide problem-solving -May exhibit increased creativity - May take longer to learn new technology but tend to want new training opportunities - Can provide mentorship and trainingmultigenerational workplace- Is a personnel comprised of people from several generations. The average lifespan for humans has been increasing, so more individuals are choosing to work well past the typical retirement age. The age diversity in the current workforce is the widest eversatisfaction in retirement-Are happy - Made the decision - Have enough income - Planned ahead - Are married - Have a retired spousecareer identity- Meaning and motivations related to one's occupational rolejob satisfaction- Positive feelings and satisfaction with one's jobwhite collar jobs- People tend to become more satisfied with their jobs as they age - EX: desk jobs, administrativeblue collar jobs- People tend to become less satisfied with their jobs as they age - EX: factory workers, constructionalienation- When workers feel what they are doing is meaningless and their efforts are devaluedburnout- Exhaustion and depletion of motivation in work activities** gender differences in workplace- Women who do well in nontraditional careers are viewed more negatively and as less "respectable" than men in the same careers - Women who achieve career success are viewed as less desirable mates - the opposite is true for menwork discrimination- Denying someone a job or promotion solely on the basis of their identity (e.g., age, gender, ethnicity, sexual identity)glass ceiling- The maximum level that women may be promoted to within a profession or organizationglass cliff- Even when women reach leadership positions, their positions are precarious (unstable)** gender differences in retirement- Married women's decisions to retire are often predicted by their husband's health status or how many dependents they have. - Opposite is true for married men - Women often do not save enough for retirement because: - Women live longer than men (so they need to save more) - Women earn less money during their working years than men because: - Women change professions more often than men - More breaks from work due to child-rearing (so they earn fewer retirement benefits) - More likely to work part-time vs. full-timecareer plateauing- Lack of challenge in one's job or when a person does not seek career advancementimpacts of the changing economy- Automatizing of many jobs - Exporting jobs overseas - New skills needed: technology - Corporations: retraining employees - These issues may affect older workers more: middle-aged and older people are less likely to get (re)hiredmidlife crisis- Researchers have difficulty defining it - Occurs in middle adulthood after people experience a personal crisisunique challenges in midlife- More "overload" stressors (taking on too much at one time; Almeida, 2005) - Employees 35-55 years old most likely to hate their jobs - Overall life satisfaction may be lowest in the 30s and 40sselection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) model- Model for understanding how people cope or adapt to challenges of agingSOC- Selection - Optimization - CompensationSelection- Assess own resources (time, energy) and select specific personal goals and priorities - May involve: - Choosing specific goals and what to invest resources in -General life domains (e.g., social relationships, leisure, career)Optimization- Maximize performance by applying resources toward selected goals - May involve: - Attentional focus - Persistence - Resource allocation (e.g., time, practice) - Acquisition of new skillsCompensation- Adjusting to age related losses and limitations - May involve: - Using alternative strategies - Reallocate resources (more time) - Using external aids - Enlisting help** life-span theory of control- Explains how control changes with age - Distinguishes between primary vs. secondary control** early models- Rowe & Kahn (1998) model: - Absence of disease and disability - Maintenance of cognitive and physical functioning - Active engagement with life and social relationships - Vaillant's (2002) model builds on the above model by adding: - Good mental health - Social support - Life satisfaction** problems with early models- Assume successful aging is completely under a person's control - Ignore life circumstances (e.g., widowhood, poverty) and its implications for health and well-being - Suggest that people with health problems cannot age successfullyparabiosis- Anatomically combines the circulatory systems of two organisms - The blood from the young mouse "rejuvenates" the tissues of the older mouse