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Earth, earthquakes, volcanoes, soil, the atmosphere, oceans and freshwater bodies.

4.5 - 4.8 billion years old

How old is earth?

Mecury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

The planets from the Sun outward


Innermost zone of the earth

The solid inner core and the molten outer core

The two parts of the core

Nickel and iron

The composition of the inner core

Iron and sulfur

The composition of the outer core


What surrounds the outer core?


The area of the mantle that is slowly flowing rock


The outermost layer of the Earth which contains the crust and rigid upper mantle


How many tectonic plates in the lithosphere?

Plate Boundaries

The edges of plates

Convergent Boundary

When two plates are pushed toward each other, one of the plates will be pushed deep into the mantle

Divergent Boundary

Two plates are moving away from each other, causing a gap that can be filled with magma

Transform Fault Boundary

Two plates slide from side to side relative to each other


When a heavy ocean plate is pushed below the other plate and melts as it encounters the hot mantle


Mountains formed by magma from Earth's interiod

Active Volcanoes

Volcanoes that are currently erupting or have erupted w/i history

Dormant Volcanoes

Volcanoes that have not been know to erupt

Extinct Volcanoes

Volcanoes that are thought to never erupt again

Rift Volcanoes

Volcano that occurs when plates move away from each other

Subduction Volcanoes

Volcano that occurs where plates collide and slide over each other

Hot Spot Volcanoes

Volcano that does not form at the margin of plates. It is found over spots which are areas where magma can rise to the surgace through the plates


The result of vibrations deep in the Earth that release energy


The location of the earthquake that begins within the earth


The initial surface location


Type of rocks that are formed as sediment builds up and is compressed


Example of a sedimentary rock


Type of rock that is formed as pressure and heat is applied to rock


Example of metamorphic rock


Rock that results when rock is melted by heat and pressure below the crust into a liquid and then resolidifies


Examples of igneous rock


The measure of concentration of hydrogen ions


The pH most soils fall into

Physical Weathering (Mechanical)

Any process that breaks rock down into smaller pieces w/o changing the chemistry of the rock

Wind and water

Example of Mechanical weathering

Chemical Weathering

Occurs as a result of chemical interactions b/t water and other atmospheric gases and the bedrock of a region

Biological Weathering

Weathering that takes place as the result of the activites of living organisms


The distinctive layers of soil

O Horizon

The uppermost horizon of soil, primarily made up of organic material and humus

A Horizon

The horizon below the O made up of weathered rock and some organic material.

A Horizon

This is the zone of leaching

B Horizon

The layer below the A horizon that containes leached minerals from the A and OM from the O

B Horizon

The zone of illuviation

C Horizon

The bottom most layer of soil that is composed of larger pieces of rock that have not undergone much weathering

R Horizon

The bedrock, which lies below all of the other layers of soil

Arable soil

Soil suitable for plant growth

Nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus

Essential nutrients of soil

Green Revolution

The boom in agricultural productivity


The soil becomes water logged and when it dries out salt forms a layer on its surface refurred to as this...

Soil and Water Conservation Act 1977

Legislation that establish soil and water conservation programs to aid landowner and users

Food Security Act 1985

Legislation that discouraged the conversion of wetlands to nonwetlands

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