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51 terms

Earth's Interdependent Systems

Earth, earthquakes, volcanoes, soil, the atmosphere, oceans and freshwater bodies.
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4.5 - 4.8 billion years old
How old is earth?
Mecury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
The planets from the Sun outward
Core
Innermost zone of the earth
The solid inner core and the molten outer core
The two parts of the core
Nickel and iron
The composition of the inner core
Iron and sulfur
The composition of the outer core
Mantle
What surrounds the outer core?
Asthenosphere
The area of the mantle that is slowly flowing rock
Lithosphere
The outermost layer of the Earth which contains the crust and rigid upper mantle
12
How many tectonic plates in the lithosphere?
Plate Boundaries
The edges of plates
Convergent Boundary
When two plates are pushed toward each other, one of the plates will be pushed deep into the mantle
Divergent Boundary
Two plates are moving away from each other, causing a gap that can be filled with magma
Transform Fault Boundary
Two plates slide from side to side relative to each other
Subduction
When a heavy ocean plate is pushed below the other plate and melts as it encounters the hot mantle
Volcanoes
Mountains formed by magma from Earth's interiod
Active Volcanoes
Volcanoes that are currently erupting or have erupted w/i history
Dormant Volcanoes
Volcanoes that have not been know to erupt
Extinct Volcanoes
Volcanoes that are thought to never erupt again
Rift Volcanoes
Volcano that occurs when plates move away from each other
Subduction Volcanoes
Volcano that occurs where plates collide and slide over each other
Hot Spot Volcanoes
Volcano that does not form at the margin of plates. It is found over spots which are areas where magma can rise to the surgace through the plates
Earthquakes
The result of vibrations deep in the Earth that release energy
Focus
The location of the earthquake that begins within the earth
Epicenter
The initial surface location
Sedimentary
Type of rocks that are formed as sediment builds up and is compressed
Limestone
Example of a sedimentary rock
Metamorphic
Type of rock that is formed as pressure and heat is applied to rock
Slate
Example of metamorphic rock
Igneous
Rock that results when rock is melted by heat and pressure below the crust into a liquid and then resolidifies
Basalt
Examples of igneous rock
pH
The measure of concentration of hydrogen ions
4-8
The pH most soils fall into
Physical Weathering (Mechanical)
Any process that breaks rock down into smaller pieces w/o changing the chemistry of the rock
Wind and water
Example of Mechanical weathering
Chemical Weathering
Occurs as a result of chemical interactions b/t water and other atmospheric gases and the bedrock of a region
Biological Weathering
Weathering that takes place as the result of the activites of living organisms
Horizons
The distinctive layers of soil
O Horizon
The uppermost horizon of soil, primarily made up of organic material and humus
A Horizon
The horizon below the O made up of weathered rock and some organic material.
A Horizon
This is the zone of leaching
B Horizon
The layer below the A horizon that containes leached minerals from the A and OM from the O
B Horizon
The zone of illuviation
C Horizon
The bottom most layer of soil that is composed of larger pieces of rock that have not undergone much weathering
R Horizon
The bedrock, which lies below all of the other layers of soil
Arable soil
Soil suitable for plant growth
Nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus
Essential nutrients of soil
Green Revolution
The boom in agricultural productivity
Salinization
The soil becomes water logged and when it dries out salt forms a layer on its surface refurred to as this...
Soil and Water Conservation Act 1977
Legislation that establish soil and water conservation programs to aid landowner and users
Food Security Act 1985
Legislation that discouraged the conversion of wetlands to nonwetlands