49 terms

diseases chapter 11

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purpose of the digestive system
change foods into simpler substances
eliminate waste products
alimentary canal
continuous tube running from mouth to anus
hematemesis
bloody vomiting
hemotochezia
blood in stool
melena
dark, tarry stool
peritonitis
inflammation of the peritoneum
septicemia
infection of the bloodstream
reflux esophagitis
also called gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
inflammation of the tissue at the lower end of the esophagus
cause of reflux esophagitis
backflow of stomach acids through cardiac sphincter upwards into the esophagus
symptoms of reflux esophagitis
heartburn
long term complications: bleeding, ulceration, and scarring of the esophagus
treatment/prevention of reflux esophagitis
avoid large meals; avoid spicy foods, tight clothing, caffeine; take stool softeners; take laxatives; take antacids; sleep with head of bed elevated; avoid smoking, carbonated beverages, chocolate, high-fat foods, late-night snacks
peptic ulcers
sore in the lining of the lower esophagus, stomach, or upper part of the small intestine
duodenal ulcers = 80%
predisposing factors to peptic ulcers
duodenal ulcers: infection with H. pylori, secreation of excess acid and pepsin, rapid gastric emptying
gastric ulcers: lower than normal levels of gastric acid, defect in gastric mucosa, gastritis
stress
symptoms of peptic ulcers
heartburn, indigestion, pain
treatment of peptic ulcers
depends on severity, antacids, reduce secretion of acid, antibiotics, surgery
prevention of peptic ulcers
avoid nicotine, caffeine, alcohol and aspirin, manage stress
regional enteritis
also known as Crohn's disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
thickening of the intestinal wall, narrowing the lume
chronic inflammatory disease most commonly affecting small intestine
characterized by remission and exacerbation, cause unknown
symptoms of regional enteritis
anorexia, flatulence, abdominal pain, diarrhea and constipation
supportive treatment of regional enteritis
low-residue diet, medications to control diarrhea, inflammation, infection, and depression
gastroenteritis
inflammation of the stomach and intestines
causes of gastroenteritis
bacteria, viruses, parasitic invasion, ingesting tainted foods, lactose intolerance, allergic reaction to food or drugs, stress
gastroenteritis symptoms
nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, stomach rumbling, malaise
treatment of gastroenteritis
antinausea and antidiarrhea medications, antibiotics, fluids, nutritional support
prevention of gastroenteritis
hand washing prior to food preparation, proper food refrigeration, avoidance of food contamination
appendicitis
inflammation of the appendix
causes: infection, obstruction
symptoms of appendicitis
abdominal pain that shift to lower right quadrant, nausea and vomiting, fever, luekocytosis, rupture (temporary relief, then usually fatal)
treatment of appendicitis
surgical removal of the appendix before rupture
prevention of appendicitis
none confirmed, but healthy diet is suggested
irritable bowel syndrome
twice as common in women, IBD has inflammation and lesions but IBS does not, cause is unknown but strongly associated with psychological stress
predisposing factors of IBS
diverticular disease, lactose intolerance, abuse of laxatives, food poisoning, colon cancer
IBS symptoms
abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation
treatment of IBS
high fiber foods, antidiarrheal drugs
prevention of IBS
stress management, diet
dysentery
acute inflammation of the colon
causes: contaminated food and water
symptoms of dysentery
massive diarrhea with blood, pus, and mucus accompanied by severe abdominal pain, tenesmus
tenesmus
feeling of constant need to pass stools
treatment of dysentery
dependent on cause: antibiotics may be used to treat a bacterial infection, antidiarrheal drugs prolong symptoms and communicability, control of dehydration is most important
prevention of dysentery
home and self hygiene
diverticulosis and diverticulitis
small sacs form in the intestines, sacs inflame
predisposing factors of diverticulosis and diverticulitis
excess pressure on weak intestinal walls, lack of fiber
diverticulosis symptoms
mirror IBS
diverticulitis symptoms
fever, pain, tenderness, rigidity of the abdomen
diverticulosis and diverticulitis treatment
fiber, antispasmodic drugs, bed rest, antibiotics, liquid diet, intravenous feeding, surgery
prevention of diverticulosis and diverticulitis
high-fiber diet
hemorrhoids
varicose veins in the rectum, internal or external
causes of hemorrhoids
pressure in the anal area, constipation, prolonged sitting or standing, pregnancy and childbirth
symptoms of hemorrhoids
itching, bleeding with bowel movements, rectal pain, protrusions
hemorrhoids treatment
medications, warm sitz baths, manual reduction, cyrosurgery and hemorrhoidectomy
prevention of hemorrhoids
stool softening, good bowel habits, fluids and fiber, exercise, avoidance of laxative use
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