Biological Psychology Exam #4 Review

What is the disturbance in one's ability to produce, repeat, and/or understand language?
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What has these three deficits: difficulty recognizing spoken words, difficulty comprehending the meaning of words, difficulty converting thoughts into words?wernicke's aphasiaWhen someone has difficulty recognizing spoken words, what area of the brain is damaged?wernicke's areaWhen someone has difficulty comprehending the meaning of words, what area of the brain is damaged?different areas of association cortex (around wernicke's aphasia)What is it when you can't understand speech but can produce your own meaningful speech ?pure word deafnessCan those with pure word deafness recognize nonverbal sounds and emotional expression of speech?yesWhat is damage to posterior language area located around Wernicke's area called?transcortical sensory aphasiaWhat is it when you can't comprehend or produce meaningful words but you can repeat others statements?transcortical sensory aphasiaCan those with transcortical sensory aphasia comprehend what they repeat?noWhat are the variables: X + Y = Wernicke's aphasiapure word deafness + transcortical aphasiaWhat is a mass of cells with uncontrolled growth?tumorWhat type of tumor is encapsulated with a clear border between brain and tumor?benignWhat type of tumor infiltrates brain tissue (cancerous)?malignantHow can malignant tumors cause brain damage?infiltration and compressionHow can benign tumors cause brain damage?compressionWhat type of way to cause brain damage is indirect?compressionWhat type of way to cause brain damage is direct?infiltrationWhat are cells shed by tumor, that travel through the bloodstream and attach to other parts of the body and grow?metastasesCan a benign tumor become malignant if not caught early enough?yesWhat is a period of sudden, excessive activity of cerebral neurons (often causes a chain reaction)?seizureWhat is a massive activity of motor neurons causing muscle activity?convulsionWhen seizures spread to the motor cortex, what occurs?convulsionsWill most seizures cause convulsions?noWhat type of seizure starts at one part and spreads throughout most of brain?generalizedWhat type of seizure starts at tone part of brain (i.e., the focus) and stays there?partialWhat is normally scarred tissue or a developmental abnormality?focusWhat is a seizure with not a complete loss of consciousness even though the person may lose focus (change in consciousness)?simple partialWhat is a seizure when someone loses consciousness?complex partialWhat is the phase of a seizure when you have a rigid, flat paralysis?tonicWhat is the phase of a seizure when you have convulsions?clonicWhat type of stroke is it when bleeding in the brain occurs and leaking increases pressure on brain tissue?hemorrhagic strokeWhat type of stroke is it when blood flow is blocked?ischemic or obstructive strokeWhat is the term for loss of blood flow?ischemiaWhat is the term for a blood clot that forms within the vessel?thrombusWhat is the term for debris that travels through vasculature and lodges in artery?embolusFor what type of stroke are there better treatment options for?ischemic or obstructive strokeHow are ischemic strokes treated?anticoagulant drugs or by mechanically removing obstructionWhat dissolves the protein involved in clot formation in anticoagulant drugs?tPAWhat can be drugs or chemicals released by viruses?toxinsWhat can toxins do to fetal development?impair itWhat are toxic chemicals that affect fetal development?teratogensDuring how many weeks gestation is ETOH exposure most likely to cause fetal alcohol syndrome?3-4 weeksETOH disrupts what organ's development in FAS?brainWhat does ETOH interfere with to disrupt brain development?neural adhesion proteinWhat guides the growth of developing neurons?neural adhesion proteinWhat is the most common effect of FAS?mental retardationWhat effect does FAS have in terms of learning?decreased long-term potentiationWhen does the initial stage of neurodevelopment occur?3-4 weeks gestationWhat is known as a "break from reality" - a psychotic disorder of thought & emotion?schizophreniaWhat is the separation between thought, emotion, and behavior of a single personality?schizophreniaWhat are the symptoms of schizophrenia that are evident by their presence?positiveWhat are the symptoms of schizophrenia that is removal of a behavior?negativeWhat are symptoms of schizophrenia that reflects a poor cognitive task performance?cognitiveWhat type of schizophrenic symptoms are hallucinations, delusions, and thought disorders?positive symptomsWhat type of schizophrenic symptoms are low reaction times, low IQ scores, and psychomotor speeds?cognitive symptomsWhat is the theory for that positive symptoms of schizophrenia are caused by abnormalities of dopaminergic neurons?dopamin hypothesisWhat do dopamine antagonists do in terms of schizophrenic symptoms?reduc positive symptomsWhat do dopamine agonists do in terms of schizophrenic symptoms?produce positive symptomsWhat is cocaine or amphetamine induced psychosis examples of?dopamin agonistsWhere is the dopaminergic circuit located?mesolimbic systemWhat is the ventral tegmental area to nucleus accumbens and amygdala?mesolimbic systemWhat system is important for reinforcement?mesolimbic systemWhat behaviors may result from schizophrenics receiving reinforcement at inappropriate times?positiveWhat symptoms are similar to one another in schizophrenia?negative and cognitiveWhat are negative and cognitive schizophrenic symptoms similar to?brain damageWhat symptoms of schizophrenia are likely due to brain abnormalities?negative and cognitive symptomsWhat region of the brain are the abnormalities in to produce negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia?prefrontal cortexDo both schizophrenic and non-schizophrenic relatives show loss of grey matter?yesWhat does the fact that both schizophrenic and non-schizophrenic relatives show loss of grey matter prove?genetic factors increase susceptibility but you need environmental factors tooIn what regions of the brain specifically did relatives with and without schizophrenia show grey matter loss?frontal and temporalWhat schizophrenic symptoms are the result of hyperactivity of dopamine system?positiveWhat schizophrenic symptoms are the result of developmental or degenerative changes to the brain?negative and cognitiveWhat decreases dopamine activity of mesolimbic system and increases dopamine activity in PFC?atypical antipsychoticsWhat atypical antipsychotic has high affinity but low efficacy?partial agonistA partial agonist is an antagonist in what system?mesolimbic systemA partial agonist is an agonist in what system?PFCWhat is the term for how well an nt (drug) binds to its receptor?affinityWhat is the term for how well a drug activates receptors once bound?efficacyWhat is an example of a partial agonist?clozapineWhat are affective disorders also called?mood disordersWhat is disordered emotions, moods, and feelings?affective disorderHow many years can dysthymic disorder last for longer than?20What percentage of females have affective disorders?7%What percentage of males have affective disorders?3%What affective disorder is classified by switches between the symptom extremes of mania and depression?bipolar disorderWhat is the core symptom of bipolar disorder?maniaWhat are the "withdrawal" symptoms in bipolar?depressionWhat symptom of bipolar do the following fall under: euphoria, delusions, increased productivity?maniaWhat symptom of bipolar do the following fall under: lowered mood (sad/anhedonia), self-worth, guilty, low motivation, suicide risk?depressionWhat affective disorder is characterized by single or recurrent major depressive episodes (absence of mania)?major depressive disorderIs there an increased risk of SI or suicidal actions for someone with major depressive disorder?yesWhat drug treats bipolar disorder?lithiumIs lithium effective for major depressive disorder?noThe fact that lithium is effective for bipolar but not major depressive disorder, suggests what about these two affective disorders?categorical differenceWhat symptoms of bipolar does lithium treat?manicIs the mechanism known for how lithium treats manic symptoms?noWhat are some possibilities for how lithium treats manic symptoms?stabalizing 5HT receptors, increasing production of neuroprotective factorsWhat might increasing the production of neuroprotective factors do to treat manic symptoms of bipolar?prevents cell deathIs the therapeutic index lower or high for lithium?lowAfter 4 weeks of taking lithium, what happens to grey matter?increasesWhat are treatments for major depressive disorder?MAO inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, SSRIs & SNRIs, ECTWhat destroys excess monamines in terminal buttons?MAOWhat inhibits serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake?tricyclic antidepressantsWhat treatment for major depressive disorder alleviates depression almost immediately but is used as a last resort?ECTWhat is the theory that depression is a result of reduced monoamine activity?monoamine hypothesisWhat do monoamine antagonists do in terms of symptoms of depression?produce themWhat do monoamine agonists do in terms of symptoms of depression?reduce themWhat are the following examples of: reserpine and tryptophan depletion?monoamine antagonistsDo the medications used for depression have immediate effects?noDoes tryptophan depletion cause depression in those without a personal history of depression?noHow many forms does the portion of the gene for the 5-HT transporter come in?2What are the 2 forms of the portion of the gene for the 5-HT transporter?short and longFill in the blank: having 1 or 2 _____ forms of the portion of the gene for the 5-HT transporter with stressful life events increases probability of depression and suicideshortWhat type of allele of the portion of the gene for the 5-HT transporter is more likely to respond to anti-depressant drugs?longWhat suppresses hippocampal neurogenesis?depressionWhat do antidepressant treatments promote?neurogenesisHow long does it take for newborn neurons to mature?2 weeksHow long does it take many antidepressants to work?2 weeksWhat does exercise increase to the hippocampus?blood volumeWhat is increased blood volume correlated with in a rat model?increased neurogenesisASD is marked by the presence of diminished.....?social interestsWhat do those with ASD become deprived of because of their diminished social interests?social inputs and learning opportunitiesWhat do those with ASD experience a deficit in because of their deprivation in social inputs and learning opportunities?social cognition