82 terms

AP Human Geography Urban Patterns

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Annexation
The adding of a region to the territory of an existing political unit.
Census Tract
An area deliniated by the us beureau of the census for which statisitcs are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods
Central Business District
The area of the city where consumer, business, and public services are clustered.
City
An urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit.
Combined statistical areea
In the U.S., 2 or more contiguous core based statistical areas tied together by commuting patterns.
Concentric zone model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
Core based statistical area
In the United States, the combination of all metropolitan statistical areas and micropolitan statistical areas.
Edge city
a large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area
Gentrification
A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area
Metropolitan statistical area
In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city.
Micropolitan statistical area
An urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city.
Multiple nuclei model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
Peripheral model
A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
Primary census statistical area
all of the combined statistical areas plus all the remaining metropolitan statistical areas and micropolitan statistical areas
Sector model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
Social area analysis
Statistical analysis used to identify where people of similar living standards, ethnic background, and life style live within an urban area.
Sprawl
Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
Squatter settlement
An area within a city in a developing country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
Urbanized area
In the United States, a central city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs.
basic sector
goods and services produced for individuals outside the urban work area
bid-rent curve
The concept that the concentric circles in Burgess's concentric zone model are based on the amount people are willing to pay for land in each zone
Central place theory
A theory developed by Walter Christaller that states theat cities exist for economic reasons and that people gather in cities to share goods and ideas.
Congregation
An ethnic group's together in a specific part of the city to support each other and minimize conflicts with those in the non-ethnic group.
gateway city
A city that served as the control center for a former colonial power
ghettoization
The concentration of a certain group of residents in a certain residential area against their will through legal means or social discrimination.
gravity model
A law of spatial interaction that states that larger places attract people, ideas, and goods more strongly that smaller places.
Green Revolution
The development and transfer from the developed world to the developing world, of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through new and improved technology, pesticides, and fertilizers, for the purpose of alleviating world hunger.
hinterlands
The surrounding trade area of an urban area.
megacity
A metropolitan area with a total population of over 10 million people according to the United Nations.
megalopolis
A group of supercities that have merged together into one large urban area.
multiplier effect
The ratio of non-basic jobs to basic jobs that shows the effect basic job creation has on the creation of non-basic jobs.
New Urbanism
An urban design movement that emphasizes the pedestrian-friendly return to earlier close-knit neighborhoods and a sense od community
non-basic sector
Goods and services produced by urban workers for people employed within the urban area.
primate city
A city that is at least twice as large as the next largest city and more than twice as significant (not just the largest city in a country).
public housing
Government-constructed and regulated low-income housing in urban areas.
rank-size rule
The rule proposed by Zipf that states that if all cities in a country are placed in order from the largest to the smallest, the second largest city would have about 1/2 the population of the largest city, the third largest city would have about 1/3 the population of the largest city, the fourth largest city about 1/4 the population of the largest city, etc.
rural-to-urban migration
The movement of people from the countryside to teh city usually in search of economic opportunities (jobs) and a better life (both "pull" factors of migration).
segregation
The physical separation of two groups of a population (in the United States this is usually based on race).
site
The physical location of a place.
situation
The location of a place based on its relation to other places.
suburbanization
The movement of people from urban core areas to the surrounding outer edges of the cities.
supercity
A very large city.
uneven development
The huge contrast of wealthy neighborhoods and poor neighborhoods found within urban areas and the continuing uneven allovationof funds to foster their condition.
urbanization
The rapid growth of, and migration to, large cities.
urban renewal
The process of identifying properties in inner city neighborhoods that are then acquired, cleared of residents and structures, and handed over to private investors or public agencies for construction of parks, schools, or new housing.
urban sprawl
A seperate-use system of residential housing neighborhoods on the outskirts of urban areas that don't contain retail activities. This is also called conventional suburban development (CSD).
world city
A global city that serves as an important linkage or conncetionpoint in the global economic system.
central city
The urban area that is not suburban; generally, the older or original city that is surrounded by newer suburbs.
consolidations
The number of firms has declined due to mergers and acquisitions
council government
delegates from each tribe of the Iroquois would meet, discuss issues, and decide how to move forward as a whole group
density gradient
The change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery.
federations
governments that linked different groups
filtering
A process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment.
food desert
an area characterized by a lack of affordable, fresh, and nutritious foods
gentrifications
individuals buy up and rehabilitate the houses, raising the housing value in the neighborhood and changing the neighborhood itself
greenbelt
A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
islamic city
found in the Muslim regions; owe their structure to their religious beliefs; contain mosques, open-air markets, courtyards surrounded by walls, limiting foot traffic in residential neighborhoods.
micropolitan statical area
United States Micropolitan Statistical Areas (µSA, where the initial Greek letter mu represents "micro-"), as defined by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), are urban areas in the United States centered on an urban cluster (urban area) with a population of 10,000 to 49,999.
redlining
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.
underclass
A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.
urban geography
The study of how people use space in cities
zone of transition
an area of mixed commercial and residential land uses surrounding the CBD.
zoning ordinance
A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community.
nodes
Gaps in the myelin sheath of the axons of peripheral neruons. Action potentials can 'hump' from node to node, thus increasing the speed of conduction (saltatory conduction).
central place theory
A theory formulated b Walter Christaller in the early 1900's that explains the size and distribution of cities in terms of a competitive supply of goods and services to dispersed populations.
ethnic neighborhoods
lower-class housing areas. The result of immigration to industrial cities over previous decades.
white flight
working and middle-class white people move away from racial-minority suburbs or inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs
WASPs
( white Anglo-Saxon Protestants)
Basic services
services like food, the family doctor, fuel, and auto repair
non-basic services
services like dry-cleaning and gift shops
middle-class flight
the 1970s movement of the middle class from the inner cities to the suburbs.
anti-growth movements
Push for new laws and regulations that slow suburban development and limit approval of suburban highway and push for laws and regulations that slow suburban growth
growth boundaries
boundaries that set minimums for the lot sizes of new homes
Counterbanization
moving from the city to the countryside in hopes of a better lifestyle (may still commute, but may not), trend in MDC's.
lateral commuting
commuting that occurs between suburban areas rather than towards the central city.
counter-commuting
traveling between downtown (old CBD) and edge cities (new CBD)
break-in-bulk points
locations where goods are off-loaded from one form of transport to another (breaks up goods into smaller units to be distributed)
Entrepôt
a port where merchandise can be imported and re-exported without paying import duties
Megacity
A city with 10 million or more residents
Primate city
The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Racial steering
when real estate agents direct prospective homeowners toward or away from certain neighborhoods based on their race
female-headed households
a household in which the most powerful person is a female
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