Exam 2 EdPuzzles

Which statement about learning is FALSE?
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Your friend's mother was always baking tasty cookies whenever you were at their house. You loved those cookies and would eat several each time you visited. One day, you noticed that you started to salivate as you walked up the front steps to the house, before you even smelled the cookies. The reason for this is that the house has become a(n):
Not only did Little Albert learn to fear white rats, he also cried when presented with a Santa Claus mask or a seal-fur coat. This behavior was the result of:stimulus generalization.Holly's blender makes a noise similar to the can opener, but her cat, which normally runs into the kitchen when it hears the can opener, doesn't get up from the sofa when it hears it. This demonstrates:discrimination.Thorndike found that, with continued experience in the puzzle box, effective responses that allowed escape _____ and ineffective responses _____.increased; decreasedA shy child works up the courage to raise his hand in class to answer a question. The teacher calls on him and the child delivers an excellent answer. The teacher exclaims, "That is the best answer I have heard all week! Great job! Come up to the front of the room to get a sticker!" Unfortunately, the child found all of this attention unpleasant and no longer answers questions in class. His behavior of answering questions was:positively punished.When 3-year-old Ariel threw a tantrum over the candy she wanted, her mother gave it to her so that Ariel would calm down. Unfortunately, Ariel's temper tantrums probably have been:positively reinforced.What is the major flaw of punishment?Punishment does not promote learning about the desired behavior.To teach a dog to drive a car, trainers used chaining: they would give a dog a food reward for moving the steering wheel left with one hand signal, and reward them with a treat when they moved the steering wheel right with a different hand signal. What kind of reinforcement were the trainers using?Positive reinforcementAnimal trainers want the behavior they conditioned to last for the life of the animal, without having to give a treat every time the animal it performs the behavior. To effectively establish this, what kind of training should the animal trainer use when training the animal?Positive reinforcement provided intermittentlySam, a used car salesman, doesn't know how many customers he will have to approach until someone buys a car, but he does know it is possible that the very next customer will buy a car. Sam's sales behavior is reinforced according to which type of reinforcement schedule?variable-ratioHealth inspectors pick random times to inspect restaurants for health code violations. Since the restaurant doesn't know when the inspectors may visit, they make sure they are never violating health codes. What type of schedule are the health inspectors using to encourage safe practices in the restaurants?variable-intervalWhich statement best captures the analogy that memory is like "reconstructing the dinosaur"?We reconstruct memory out of bits and fragments of the actual experience by making assumptions as to what might have happened.The process of "bringing to mind" information that has been previously encoded and stored in memory is known as:retrieval.Many people cannot identify a real penny when shown among images of fake pennies. This is most likely due to poor ______.encodingStoring information by converting it into mental images is known as _____ encoding.sensoryIn an experiment where subjects needed to learn a list of words, which of the following strategies is considered to be "deepest" in that it will help the subject best remember the words?Thinking carefully about what the word means.Little Bobby had to learn the names of all 50 states in his geography class. To help learn this, Bobby divided the United States into regions (i.e. northeast, southwest), then learned the states in each region. This clever strategy is an example of _______ encoding.organizationalUsing sketch notes as a studying technique helps because it adds ______ encoding to the text in your notes.sensoryTextbook publishers make ample use of section headers and paragraph headers because they know these features help a student learn the material (if a student makes use of these features). The general principle that these strategies are based on is called:organizational encodingSensory information is kept for 2 seconds or less in:the sensory memory store.In studies of short-term memory, subjects are often instructed to count backwards after being presented the to be remembered information. Asking participants to count backwards effectively prevents:rehearsal.The use of "chunking" to remember my phone number is an example of which kind of encoding strategy?organizationalThe phonological loop is a subsystem of working memory that stores and manipulates:verbal information.Top-down processes are used to help organize the information in working memory. According to Baddeley's model, top down processes are the job of the _______.central executiveShort-term memory is very vulnerable to distraction because the information is represented in the brain as ________.activity of neurons.What is the technical term that describes the most significant aspect of H.M.s memory deficit?anterograde amnesiaFrom the case of H.M., what might we conclude about the function of the hippocampus?It is a key brain structure for storing new memories.Blocking gene expression prevents consolidation of memory because long-term memory is represented in the brain as ______.new synapses and structures.Memories are MOST labile (changeable):when in working memory.Two groups of rats acquire a memory on day 1. On day 2, rats in group 1 are given a drug that blocks gene expression while they are actively retrieving the memory. Rats in group 2 receive the same drug but do not engage in memory retrieval. On day 3, the memory of both groups of rats was assessed. Which group will show the GREATEST impairment in memory?Group 1Which statement about long-term memory is TRUE?Each time a memory is retrieved, it becomes vulnerable to disruption.Johnny runs into someone at a market that he somehow knows. He says hello, has a brief conversation, but does not remember the name of the person or where he might have met them. This is an example of:recognitionScuba divers who memorized a list of words on the deck of a boat subsequently remembered more of those words when tested:on the deck of the boat.The BEST application of the encoding specificity principle to increase your exam scores is to:study in the same room or place in which you will take the exam.Calvin was in a very happy state when he studied for his philosophy class. During the exam he was in a very happy state, and he found he could remember most of what he studied. This ability to recall information more efficiently when you are in the same state as when the information was encoded is known as:state-dependent retrievalQuizzing yourself on the material is a way to bring stored information to mind. What happens to the information after it is retrieved to answer the question?It is reconsolidated and strengthened.Whenever Carrie gets together with her old high school friends they talk about the shared activities they did together, such as the fun they had on prom night. As Carrie and her friends got older they found that they tended to remember that prom night very well, but they forgot about other high school activities in which they did not spend time together. That they remembered the things they did together but forgot the times they spent apart is likely attributed to:collaborative memoryThe "museum" experiment demonstrated that additional details could be added to existing memories, even when these details are not true. This is due to the process of __________.memory reconsolidationThink about the most recent dinner you had with your friends; where you went, the food you ate, the conversations you had, and how you felt about the whole night. This memory is an example of:episodic memoryAfter watching a program about Benjamin Franklin's role in the founding of the United States, students were more likely to associate Franklin with the invention of the lightbulb than Thomas Edison, who actually invented the light bulb many years later. This influence of being exposed to Ben Franklin on their memory is an example of:primingWhat would HM have been unable to do?Learn the name of the person who brings him his breakfast every day.A consequence of Alzheimer's disease is a degeneration and eventual loss of the hippocampus. From this observation alone, what might you predict?Those with Alzheimer's can learn new skills like typing on a phone, but cannot remember new words and things that have recently happened to them.Memory "sins" are BEST thought of as:an exaggeration of something that is (at normal levels) good or important for our memory.Which statement best describes the benefit of transience?It is good to forget information we probably are not going to need.Source memory refers to:when, where, and how information was acquired.Of the memory "sins," one of the primary causes of eyewitness misidentifications is:misattributionWhat was the key factor into whether a subject reported that the windshield was broken or not?The questions they were asked after watching the videoAs illustrated by the hot air balloon study, _____ can play a large role in the formation of false memories.visual imagesConsistency bias exaggerates the similarity between:our past and present.Clara is in a sad mood. She is asked to recall an event in her past that was relatively neutral—her performance in a junior-high history class in which she earned a B—and she recalls it being a sadder experience than it probably was. The influence of Clara's current mood on her memory illustrates the memory sin of:bias.The intrusive recollection of events we wish we could forget is known as:persistence.