23 terms

Earth Science Rocks Test

Why is the rock cycle a good illustration of the Earth's System?
it allows us to view many interrelationships
Which processes are restricted to earth's surface?
weathering, transportation, and deposition
What are the various agents that can pick up, transport, and deposit the products of weathering?
water, glaciers, wind and waves
How are Igneous rocks formed?
when magma or lava cools and solidifies
How are Sedimentary rocks formed?
products of weathering; formed when sediment is compacted and cemented
How are Metamorphic rocks formed?
when rock buried deep in earth's crust undergo heat and pressure
What factor influences the size of mineral crystals in igneous rocks? How does it influence the size of crystals?
rate of cooling; the slower a rock cools, the larger its crystals
List and describe the two criteria used to classify igneous rocks.
texture-from different cooling precesses; mineral composition-how many light or dark minerals a rock contains
According to Bowen's reaction series, which mineral is the first mineral to form from magma? If the reaction series is completed, which mineral will be the last to crystallize?
first-Olivine; last-Quartz
Is it possible for two igneous rocks to have the same mineral constituents but different names? Explain.
yes, because of different cooling rates
List minerals that will most likely occur in the rock groups Basaltic and Granitic.
Basaltic(oceanic)-olivine and pyroxene; Granitic-quartz and potassium
Describe how the solid and liquid components of magma can separate.
crystal setting; when the earlier formed minerals are denser than the liquid portion and sink toward the bottom of the magma chamber
What are the two processes that cause sediment to be lithified into solid sedimentary rock?
compaction and cementation
Describe and give and example of detrital(clastic) sedimentary rock.
formed from solid particles of weathered rocks or detritus; sandstone
Describe and give and example of chemical sedimentary rock.
formed when dissolved minerals are precipitated back as solids; limestone
What is used to subdivide the detrital sedimentary rocks?
particle size
What does the presence of angular fragments in a detrital sedimentary rock suggest about the transportation of the particles?
they were not transported far from their source prior to deposition
What basis is used to subdivide the chemical sedimentary rocks?
mineral composition
What is the most abundant chemical sedimentary rock? What are the two origins for this rock?
limestone; biochemical sediment and precipitation from sea water
Def. of fossils.
the traces or remains of prehistoric life
Describe the two settings in which metamorphism most often occurs.
Regional metamorphism- great quantities of rock are subjected to direct pressure(mountain building-intese stress); Contact metamorphism-when a rock is intruded by a magma body
What are the three agents of metamorphism?
heat, pressure, and chemically active fluids
Name and describe the two textures of metamorphic rocks, give examples.
foliated-layerd or banded appearance, gneiss or slate; nonfoliated-forms of equidimentional crystals, not aligned, marble