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four main classes of large biological molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids)
a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi; also found in the external skeletons of arthropods
nonpolar molecules that are not soluble or mostly insoluble in water. do not involve polymers!
roles of proteins
speed up chemical reactions, defense, storage, transport, cellular communication, movement and structural support
a biologically functional molecule that consists of one or more polypeptides, each folded and coiled into a specific 3D shape
The localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between peptide linkages.
Irregular contortions of a protein molecule due to interactions of side chains involved in hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges.
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