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Ap Biology Chapter 5
four types of large molecules
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
four main classes of large biological molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids)
a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds
The repeating units that serve as the building blocks of polymers.
Specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water
components of carbohydrates
formula in multiples of CH2O
the most common monosaccharide
functional groups involved in carbohydrates
carbonyl and hydroxyl
covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction
a polymer that plants use for storing energy
a polymer of glucose, used for energy storing
major component of cell walls, most abundant organic compound, never branched
complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi; also found in the external skeletons of arthropods
nonpolar molecules that are not soluble or mostly insoluble in water. do not involve polymers!
types of lipids
fats, phospholipids and steroids
compound of fats
glycerol and fatty acids
saturated fatty acid
no double bonds, saturated with hydrogen
unsaturated fatty acid
double bonds, solid at room temperature
major function of fats
lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton of four fused sugar rings
roles of proteins
speed up chemical reactions, defense, storage, transport, cellular communication, movement and structural support
polymers of amino acids
a biologically functional molecule that consists of one or more polypeptides, each folded and coiled into a specific 3D shape
organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group
linked series of amino acids with a unique sequence
The localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between peptide linkages.
Irregular contortions of a protein molecule due to interactions of side chains involved in hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges.
overall protein structure, combining 2 or more polypeptides
protein molecules that assist the proper folding of other proteins
polymers made of monomers called nucleotides
function of DNA
provides instruction for replication
function of RNA
directs protein synthesis
three parts of a nucleotide
nitrogen base, five-carbon sugar, and a phosphate group
C, T and U-when in RNA
A and G