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38 terms

Ap Biology Chapter 5

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four types of large molecules
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
macromolecules
four main classes of large biological molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids)
polymer
a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds
monomers
The repeating units that serve as the building blocks of polymers.
enzymes
Specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions
dehydration reaction
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
hydrolysis
Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water
components of carbohydrates
sugars
monosaccharides
formula in multiples of CH2O
glucose
the most common monosaccharide
functional groups involved in carbohydrates
carbonyl and hydroxyl
glycosidic bond
covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction
starch
a polymer that plants use for storing energy
glycogen
a polymer of glucose, used for energy storing
cellulose
major component of cell walls, most abundant organic compound, never branched
chitin
complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi; also found in the external skeletons of arthropods
lipids
nonpolar molecules that are not soluble or mostly insoluble in water. do not involve polymers!
types of lipids
fats, phospholipids and steroids
compound of fats
glycerol and fatty acids
saturated fatty acid
no double bonds, saturated with hydrogen
unsaturated fatty acid
double bonds, solid at room temperature
major function of fats
energy storage
steroids
lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton of four fused sugar rings
roles of proteins
speed up chemical reactions, defense, storage, transport, cellular communication, movement and structural support
polypeptides
polymers of amino acids
protein
a biologically functional molecule that consists of one or more polypeptides, each folded and coiled into a specific 3D shape
amino acid
organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group
primary structure
linked series of amino acids with a unique sequence
secondary structure
The localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between peptide linkages.
tertiary structure
Irregular contortions of a protein molecule due to interactions of side chains involved in hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges.
quarternary structure
overall protein structure, combining 2 or more polypeptides
chaperonins
protein molecules that assist the proper folding of other proteins
nucleic acids
polymers made of monomers called nucleotides
function of DNA
provides instruction for replication
function of RNA
directs protein synthesis
three parts of a nucleotide
nitrogen base, five-carbon sugar, and a phosphate group
pyrimidine
C, T and U-when in RNA
purine
A and G