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Chapter 25 Quiz
Terms in this set (18)
At Yalta, the Big Three agreed to establish an international body to replace the discredited League of Nations. This organization would have both a General Assembly, in which all nations would be represented, and a Security Council composed of the five major Allied powers—the US, Britain, France, China, and the Soviet Union—and seven other nations elected on a rotating basis.
This conference took place outside Berlin in July 1945, involving Truman, Stalin, and Churchill. This conference set the stage for communist rule to descend over Eastern Europe and paved the way for the division of Germany into East and West.
This was a foreign policy designed to contain or block Soviet expansion. It was the primary U.S. foreign policy from the announcement of the Truman Doctrine in 1947 to the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989.
President Truman was determined to block the expansion of Soviet influence into Greece and Turkey. On March 12, 1947, Truman asked Congress for $400 million in economic aid for Greece and Turkey. Truman justified the aid by declaring that the United States would support "free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures."
World War II left Western Europe devastated and vulnerable to Soviet influence. This was a program of economic aid designed to promote the recovery of war-torn Europe while also preventing the spread of communist influence. It was an integral part of Truman's policy of containment.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Ten Western European nations joined with the United States and Canada to form this defensive military alliance. This alliance marked a decisive break from America's tradition of isolationism.
A military alliance formed in 1955 by the Soviet Union and seven Eastern European countries: Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania. This was in response to the formation of NATO.
In April 1950, the NSC (US National Security Council) delivered this report. It marked a decisive turning point in the US approach to the Cold War. The report proposed "a bold and massive program of rebuilding the West's defensive potential to surpass that of the Soviet World."
A term used to describe the shift in foreign policy from containment to massive retaliation. President Eisenhower stressed reliance on nuclear weapons as an alternative to conventional ground forces in an effort to balance the budget while maintaining US military superiority
After Stalin's death in March 1953, he emerged as Stalin's successor. He soon startled communists around the world by denouncing Stalin and detailing his crimes and blunders.
The United States believed that if one nation fell under Communist control, nearby nations would inevitably also fall under Communist influence. This theory—which represented an extension of the containment doctrine—guided US policy in Southeast Asia for the next twenty years.
In early 1957, concerned about Soviet influence in the Middle East, the president announce this doctrine, which states that American forces would assist any nation in the region that required aid "against overt armed aggression from any nation controlled by International Communism."
Ho Chi Minh
The communist leader of North Vietnam. He led the Viet Minh to victory against the French. Following their defeat, the French withdrew from Vietnam in 1954.
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and trained by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Cuban Missile Crisis
An international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island. The Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later, on condition that US doesn't invade Cuba.
A federal agency created by President Kennedy in 1961 to promote voluntary service by Americans in foreign countries. It provides labor power to help developing countries improve their infrastructure, health care, educational systems, and other aspects of their societies. Part of Kennedy's New Frontier vision, the organization represented an effort by postwar liberals to promote American values and influence through productive exchanges across the world.
Cuban revolutionary leader who overthrew the corrupt regime of the dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959 and soon after established a Communist state. He was prime minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976.
Ngo Dinh Diem
The US picked him to be leader of South Vietnam because he was pro-U.S. and anti-communist, but he was Roman Catholic and not Buddhist, so he did not gain the support of the large Buddhist population in South Vietnam, which is just one of the reasons why he was a bad choice. He didn't care for poor, he started to jail people who were critical of him, and he acted like a dictator. He was assassinated by members of the CIA in 1963.
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