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Art & Design Fundamentals 211 Chap. 1-2 Quiz

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Abstraction
a process or visual effect characterized by the simplification and/or rearrangement of the image
Accent
any stress or emphasis given to the elements of a composition that brings them more attention than other features that surround or are close to them; accent can be created by a brighter color, a darker value, greater size, or any other means by which a difference is expressed
Addition
a sculptural term that means building up, assembling, or putting on material
Aesthetic
sensitive to art or beauty; "aesthetically pleasing" implies intellectual or visual beauty (i.e., creative, eloquent, or expressive qualities of form, as opposed to the mere recording of facts in visual, descriptive, or objective ways)
Aesthetics
the study or theory of beauty—traditionally a branch of philosophy but now a compound of the philosophy, psychology, and sociology of art—dealing with the definition, inspiration, intent, forms, and psychological effects of art and beauty
Allover Pattern
a design that is formed through the systematic repetition of smaller designed units over an entire surface
Approximate Symmetry
the use of similar imagery on either side of a central axis; the visual material on one side may resemble that on the other but is varied to prevent visual monotony
Art
"the formal expression of a conceived image or imaged conception in terms of a given medium" (Sheldon Cheney)
Assemblage
a technique that involves grouping found or created three-dimensional objects, which are often displayed in situ—that is, in natural position or in the middle of the room rather than on a wall
Asymmetry
"without symmetry"; having unequal or non-corresponding parts; an example may be a two-dimensional artwork that, without any necessarily visible or implied axis, displays an uneven distribution of parts throughout
Atectonic
three-dimensional work characterized by considerable amounts of space; open, as opposed to massive (or tectonic), and often with extended appendages
Balance
a sense of equilibrium between areas of implied weight, attention, attraction, or moments of force; one of the principles of organization
Bauhaus
originally a German school of architecture that flourished between World War I and World War II; the Bauhaus attracted many leading experimental artists of both two- and three-dimensional fields
Casting
a sculptural technique which liquid materials are shaped by being poured into a mold; this technique is also known as substitution
Closure
a concept from Gestalt psychology in which the mind perceives and incomplete pattern or information to be a complete, unified whole; the artist provides minimum visual clues, and the observer brings them to final recognition
Composition
the arranging and/r structuring of all the art elements, according to the principles of organization, that achieves a unified whole; often used interchangeably with the term design
Concept
1. a comprehensive idea or generalization; 2. an idea that brings diverse elements into a basic relationship
Conceptual Artists
artists who focus on the idea, or "concept," of the work and are much more concerned with conveying a message or analyzing an idea than with the final product
Conceptual Perception
creative vision derived from the imagination; the opposite of optical perception
Content
the expression, essential meaning, significance, or aesthetic value of a work of art; content refers to the sensory, subjective, psychological, or emotional properties we feel in a work of art, as opposed to our perception of its descriptive aspects alone
Craftsmanship
aptitude, skill, or quality workmanship in the use of tools and materials
Cubism
the name given to the painting style invented by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque between 1907 and 1912, which uses multiple views of objects to create the effect of three-dimensionality while acknowledging the two-dimensional surface of the picture plane; signaling the beginning of abstract art, Cubism is a semiabstract style that continued the strong trend away from representational art initiated by Cézanne in the late 1800s
Decorative
the tow-dimensional nature of an artwork or any of its elements, which emphasize the essential flatness of a surface; also has generically referred to the ornamentation or enrichment of a surface
Descriptive [Art]
a type of art that is based on adherence to actual appearances
Design
the organizing process or underlying plan on which artists base their total work; in a broader sense, design may be considered synonymous with the terms form and composition
Dominance
the principle of organization in which certain visual elements assume more importance than others within the same composition or design; some features are emphasized, and others are subordinated; dominance is often created by increased contrasts through the use of isolation, placement, direction, scale, and character
Economy
the distillation of the image to the basic essentials for clarity of presentation; one of the principles of organization
Elements of Art
line, shape, value, texture, and color—the basic ingredients the artist uses separately or in combination to produce artistic imagery; their use produces the visual language of art
Expression
1. the manifestation through artistic form of though, emotion, or quality of meaning; 2. in art, expression is synonymous with the term content
Form
1. the total appearance, organization, or inventive arrangement of all the visual elements according to the principles that will develop unity in the artwork, i.e. composition; 2. in sculpture, an also refer to the three-dimensional shape of the work
Gestalt, Gestalt Psychology
a German word for "form"; an organized whole in experience; around 1912, the Gestalt psychologists promoted the theory that explains psychological phenomena by their relationships to total forms, or Gestalten, rather than their parts; in other words, our reaction to the whole is greater than our reaction to its individual parts or characteristics, and our minds integrate and organize chaotic stimuli so that we see complete patterns and recognizable shapes
Glyptic
1. the quality of an art material like stone, wood, or metal that can be carved or engraved; 2.an art form that retains the color, tensile [flexibility], and tactile [rigidity] qualities of the material from which it was created; 3. the quality of hardness, solidity, or resistance found in carved or engraved materials
Golden Mean
"perfect" harmonious proportions that avoid extremes; the moderation between extremes
Golden Section
a traditional proportional system for visual harmony expressed when a line or area is divide into two sections so that the smaller part is to the larger as the larger is to the whole; the ratio developed is 1:1.6180, or roughly 8:13
Graphic [Art]
two-dimensional art processes such as drawing, painting, photography, printmaking, and so on that generally exist on a flat surface and can create the illusion of depth; commercial applications include posters, newspapers, books, and magazines
Harmony
a principle of organization in which parts of a composition are made to relate through commonality—repeated or shared characteristic, elements, or visual units; harmony is the opposite of variety
Installations
interior or exterior settings of media created by artists to heighten the viewers'' awareness of the environmental space
Interpenetration
the positioning of planes, objects, or shapes so that they appear to pass through each other, which locks them together within a specified area of space
Kinetic
from the Greek word kinesis, meaning "motion"; art that involves an element of random or mechanical movement
Manipulation
the sculptural technique of shaping pliable materials by hand or with the use of tools—also known as modeling
Mass
1. in graphic art, a shape that appears to stand out three-dimensionally from the space surrounding it or that appears to create the illusion of a solid body of material; 2. in the plastic arts, the physical bulk of a solid body of material
Medium, Media
the material(s) and tool(s) used by the artist to create the visual elements perceived by the viewer
Mobile
a three-dimensional, moving sculpture
Modeling
a sculptural term for shaping a pliable material
Moments of Force
the direction and degree of energy implied by the art elements in specific compositional situations; amounts of visual thrust produced by such matters as dimension, placement, and accent
Motif
a designed unit or pattern that is repeated often enough in the total composition to make it a significant or dominant feature; motif is similar to "theme" or "melody" in a musical composition
Movement
eye travel directed by visual pathways in a work of art; one of the principles of organization; movement is guided by harmonious connections, areas of variety, the placement of visual weights, areas of dominance, choices in proportions, spatial devices, and so on
Naturalism
the approach to art that is essentially a description of things visually experienced; pure naturalism would contain no personal interpretation introduced by the artist
Negative Area
the unoccupied or empty space left after the positive images have been created by the artist; consideration of the negative areas is just as important to the organization of form as the positive areas
Nonobjective/Nonrepresentational Art
a type of art that is completely imaginative, in which the elements, their organization and their treatment are entirely personalized and the image is not derived from anything visually perceived by the artist
Objective
that which is based on the physical reality of the object and reflects no personal interpretation, bias, or emotion; the opposite of subjective
Optical Perception
a purely visual experience with no exaggeration or creative interpretation of that which is seen; the opposite of conceptual perception
Organic Unity
a condition in which the components of art (subject, form, and content) are completely interdependent; though not a guarantee of "greatness," the resulting wholeness is vital to a successful work
Pattern
1. any artistic design (sometimes serving as a model for imitation); 2. a repeating element and/or design that can produce a new set of characteristics or organization
Picture Frame
the outermost limits or boundary of the picture plane
Picture Plane
the actual flat surface on which the artist executes a pictorial image; in some cases, the picture plane acts merely as a transparent plane of reference to establish the illusion of forms existing in a three-dimensional space
Plane
1.an area that is essentially two-dimensional, having height and width; 2. a two-dimensional pictorial surface that can support the illusion of advancing or receding elements; 3. a flat sculptural surface
Plastic [Art]
1. the use of the elements to create the illusion of the third dimension on a two-dimensional surface; 2. three-dimensional art forms such as architecture, sculpture, ceramics, and so on.
Positive Area
the subject—whether representational or nonrepresentational—which is produced by the art elements (shape, line, etc.) or their combination
Principles of Organization
concepts that guide the arrangement and integration of the elements in achieving a sense of visual order and overall visual unity; harmony, variety, balance, proportion, dominance, movement, and economy
Process Artists
artists who focus on the execution, or "process," of the work and are much more concerned with the technique they employ in creating the work that with the final product
Proportion
the comparative relationship of size between units or the parts of a whole; for example, the size of the Statue of Liberty's hand relates to the size of her head; proportion is one of the principles of organization
Radial
emanating from a center
Realism, movement
relates to painters like Honoré Daumier in nineteenth-century France and Winslow Homer in the United States in the 1850s
Realism, style
a style of art that emphasizes universal characteristics rather than specific information (e.g., a generalization of all "motherhood" rather than an extremely detailed portrait of a specific woman)
Relief Sculpture
an artwork, graphic in concept but sculptural in application, utilizing relatively shallow depth to establish images; the space development may range from very limited projection, known as low relief, to more exaggerated space development, known as high relief; relief sculpture is meant to be viewed frontally, not in the round
Repetition
the use of the same visual effect—and/or similar visual effects—a number of times in the same composition; repetition may produce the dominance of one visual idea, a feeling of harmonious relationship an obviously planned patter, or a rhythmic movement
Representational Art
a type of art in which the subject is presented through the visual art elements so that the observer is reminded of actual objects
Rhythm
a continuance, a flow, or a sense of movement achieved by the repetition of regulated visual unit; the sue of measured accents
Scale
the association of size relative to a constant standard or specific unit of measure related to human dimensions; for example, the Statue of Liberty's scale is apparent when she is seen next to an automobile
Sculpture
the art of shaping three-dimensional materials to express an idea
Shape
an area that stands out from its surroundings because of a defined or implied boundary or because of differences of value, color, or texture
Space
the interval, or measurable distance, between points or images; can be actual or illusionary
Style
the specific artistic character and dominant trends of form noted during periods of history and art movements; style may also refer to artists' expressive use of media to give their works individual character
Subject
1. in a descriptive approach to art, refers to the persons or things represented; 2. in more abstract applications, refers to visual images that may have little to do with anything experienced in the natural environment
Subjective
that which is derived from the mind, instead of physical reality, and reflects a personal bias, emotion, or innovative interpretation; the opposite of objective
Substitution
in sculpture, replacing one material or medium with another
Subtraction
a sculptural term meaning the carving or cutting away of material
Symmetry
the exact duplication of appearances in mirror-like repetition on either side of a (usually imaginary) straight-lined central axis
Technique
the manner and skill with which artists employ their tools and materials to achieve an expressive effect
Tectonic
the quality of simple massiveness; three-dimensional work lacking any significant extrusions or intrusions
Three-Dimensional
possesses the dimensions of (or illusions of) height, width, and depth; in the graphic arts, the feeling of depth is an illusion, while in the plastic arts, the work has actual depth
Transparency
a visual quality in which a distant image or element can be seen through a nearer one
Two-Dimensional
possesses the dimensions of height and width, especially when considering the flat surface, or picture plane
Unity
the result of bringing the elements of art into the appropriate ratio between harmony and variety to give a sense of oneness
Variety
differences achieved by opposing, contrasting, changing, elaborating, or diversifying elements in a composition to add individualism and interest; variety is an important principle of organization
Visual Unity
a sense of visual oneness—an organization of the elements into a visual whole; visual unity results from the appropriate ratio between harmony and variety (in conjunction with the other principles of organization)
Volume
the measurable amount of defined, or occupied space in a three-dimensional object