Introductory Sociology CLEP

These are always members of a person's family of orientation
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Terms in this set (211)
According to Max Weber, power legitimized on the basis of a leader's exceptional personal qualities is what kind of authority?CharismaticThis provides U.S. citizens a voice in their government through elected representatives who serve as bridges between the citizenry and the governmentRepresentative democracyThis is NOT a manifest function of educationProduction of social networks"Proper" attitudes toward education, socially approved dress and manners, knowledge about books, art, music, and other forms of high and popular culture are all examples ofCultural capitalAssignment of students to specific courses and educational programs based on their test scores, previous grades, or both isTrackingThe type of social arrangement in which people are able to gain higher positions based on their intellectual and educational credentials rather than through the influence of personal contacts isMeritocracyWhich of the following is Emile Durkheim's term for those aspects of life that are extraordinary or supernatural?SacredBelief in a single supreme being or God who is responsible for significant events such as the creation of the world isMonotheismThe study of the causes and distribution of health, disease, and impairment throughout a population isSocial epidemiologyAccording to Talcott Parsons, what does NOT apply to persons who play the sick roleBlame for their own illnessThis is NOT a factor that has contributed to the erosion of the American Dream for the middle classThe need for a college degree as an entry-level job requirement.Who are the working poor?People who live from just above to just below the poverty line.What BEST expresses the functionalist explanation of social inequalityPositions that are most important for the survival of society must be filled by the most qualified people who are highly rewardedPowerful individuals and groups use ideology to maintain their favored positions at the expense of others, according to what theoretical perspective?ConflictThe hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on their control over basic resources isSocial stratificationAccording to Karl Marx, what is NOT true of capitalists?They achieve wealth through capitalLarge computer software corporations are representative of twenty-first century capitalism, which increasingly is based onInformation technologyAccording to Max Weber, individual power depends on a person's position withinBureaucraciesFor the upper class, wealth is most often the result ofInheritianceWhat group of people has the highest net worth overall?Married personsAccording to Karl Marx's theory of class relationsClass relationships involve inequality and exploitation.Karl Marx's term for government, schools, churches, and all other social institutions that produce and disseminate ideas that perpetuate the existing system of exploitation is society'sSuperstructureIn Max Weber's stratification typology, which class consists of skilled, semiskilled and unskilled workers?The working classThe respect or regard with which a person is regarded by others isPrestigeWhat is NOT a contributor to the global feminization of poverty?High-income nations are importing poor women to their countries to provide them better paying jobs and marketable training.What is not true about contingent work?It offers advantages to workers but can be detrimental to employersThe process by which some characteristics of a profession are eliminated isDeprofessionalizationNegotiations between employers and labor union leaders on behalf of workers are referred to asCollective bargainingWhat is not shared by members of the same ethnic groups?A common educational levelWhat do sociologists term a group that is advantaged and has superior resources and rights within a society?MajorityA negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about members of selected racial, ethnic, or other groups is referred to asPrejudiceA football coach is happy to work with African-American players, but feels that white fans will accept only a certain percentage of people of color on the team, thus affecting his hiring practices. According to sociologist Robert Merton, this coach isAn unprejudiced discriminatorAt birth, male and female infants are distinguished by the genitalia used in the reproductive process, which are referred to asPrimary sex characteristicsPreference for emotional sexual relationships with members of the opposite sex (heterosexuality), the same sex (homosexuality), or both sexes (bisexuality) is one'sOrientationThe culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males found in the meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with "femininity" and "masculinity" are known asGenderIn the United States, males traditionally are expected to demonstrate aggressiveness, whereas females are expected to be passive and nurturing, which illustrates the concept ofGender roleWhat is the name used for bar graphs divided into five-year age cohorts, with the left side depicting the number or percentage of males in each age bracket and the right side providing the same information for females?Population pyramidsAn estimate of the average lifetime in years of people born in a specific year isLife expectancyWhat is not true regarding the relationship between age and poverty in the United States?Older persons are at a much greater risk of living in poverty than are childrenIllnesses that are long-term or lifelong and that develop gradually or are present from birth are known asChronicAccording to Ferdinand Tönnies, Gemeinschaft refers toa traditional society in which social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship and kinship and on intergenerational stabilityThe United States has a larger homeless population today than in earlier times because ofChanges in structural factors in societyWhat is Emile Durkheim's term for the social cohesion found in industrial societies, in which people perform very specialized tasks and feel united by their mutual dependence?Organic solidarityThe "old boy network" is an example ofA Social networkThe subfield of sociology that examines population size, composition, and distribution isDemographyA group of people who live in a specified geographic area are referred to asPopulationThe actual level of childbearing of an individual or a population is referred to asFertilityThe number of people living in a specific geographic area (for example, people per square mile) isDensityAccording to urban sociologists, a city isA relatively dense and permanent settlement of peopleThe subfield of sociology that examines social relationships and political and economic structures in the city isUrban sociologyThe study of the relationship between people and their physical environment is known asHuman ecologyIn Herbert Gans' typology of urban dwellers, those who live in tightly knit neighborhoods that resemble small towns areEthnic villagersWhat is the term that sociologists use for the situation where the number of low-income neighborhood residents increases and they begin to spill over into adjacent middle-class neighborhoods, which causes the middle class to move out, thus expanding the base or sector of low-income housing?The invasion-succession cycleA continuous concentration of two or more cities and their suburbs that have grown until they form an interconnected urban area is aMegalopolicWhat is the term used to describe the situation where banks have policies of refusing to make loans for housing and businesses to persons residing in low-income or blighted communities?RedliningA group to which a person does NOT belong and toward which the person may feel a sense of competitiveness or hostility isAn out-groupReference groupA group that strongly influences a person' s behavior and social attitudes, regardless of whether that individual is an actual member.What concept is illustrated by the fact that a successful college president need not be effective in designing the college's promotional brochures and a successful corporate executive need not be able to program the department's computer system?Division of laborSystematic practices developed by social groups to encourage conformity to social norms are referred to as mechanisms ofSocial controlAccording to Robert Merton's strain theory, what occurs when people accept society's goals but adopt disapproved means for achieving them?InnovationThe statement "The greater the degree of social harm, the more the offender should be punished" reflects the principle ofRetributionAn organized group that acts consciously to promote or resist change through collective action isA social movementMovements seeking to bring about a total change in society are referred to asRevolutionaryPeople who are satisfied with their present condition are LESS likely to seek social change, according to the theory ofRelative deprivationVoluntary, often spontaneous activity that is engaged in by a large number of people and that typically violates dominant group norms and values isCollective behaviorA relatively large number of people who are in one another's immediate vicinity is termed aCrowdThe situation in which a teenage boy receives advice from his older sister about how to act on a first date is an example ofSocializationWhat is Charles Horton Cooley's term for the way in which a person's sense of self is derived from the perceptions of others?The "looking glass" selfThe process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another person in order to understand the world from that person's point of view is referred to asRole-takingAccording to sociologists, what account(s) for virtually all patterns of human behavior?CultureTraditions, beliefs, language and philosophies are all examples ofNon-material cultureAccording to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesisLanguage precedes thoughtThe complex framework of societal institutions and the social practices that make up a society and organize and establish limits on individual behavior are referred to asSocial structureAny physical or social attribute or sign that so devalues a person's social identity that it disqualifies that person from full social acceptance is aStigmaWhich of the following is an ascribed status?FemaleThe scholar Auguste ComteCsidered to be the founder of sociologyAccording to sociologist C. Wright Mills, the ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society is referred to asThe sociological imaginationThe first U.S. departments of sociology were established atUniversity of Chicago and Atlanta UniversityGeorge Herbert Mead is one of the founders of theSymbolic interaction perspectiveSymbolic interaction perspectiveSymbolic interactionism suggests that society is the sum of face-to-face interactions of individuals and groupsWhat was NOT an accomplishment of sociologist W.E.B. Du BoisFounding of the first college for white women in the United StatesThe extent to which a study or research instrument yields consistent results isReliabilityThe process of systematically collecting information for the purpose of testing an existing theory or generating a new idea isResearchAny concept with measurable traits or characteristics that can change or vary from one person, time, situation, or society to another is aVariableIf depression is assumed to be caused by loss of employment, then depression is treated here asThe dependent variableThe research method in which the goal is scientific objectivity and the focus is on numerical data is known asQuantitative analysisIn order for societies to produce social change and a better society, Karl Marx believed which of the following was necessary?Class conflictThe role of a health club or golf club as a meeting ground for people seeking new business contacts is an example ofA latent functionLatent functionAn unintended or hidden function of an institution or organizationWhat sociological perspective views society as a system in which each part contributes to the survival of the entire systemFunctionalist perspectiveFunctional perspectiveThe basic functional component parts of society are social institutions such as family, education, religion, law, and the economyWhat sociological perspective would study how educational institutions help to maintain the privilege of some groups, while keeping others in a lower positionConflict perspectiveConflict perspectiveThe conflict perspective sees social groups as engaged in a continuous struggle for access to, and control of, scarce resourcesThe symbolic interactionist approach views society asBeing determined by social interaction and communicationSymbolic interactionSociety is created anew out of face-to-face social interactions between individuals.What is defined as a relationship in which people live together with commitment, form an economic unit and care for any young, and consider their identity to be significantly attached to the group?FamilyWhich of the following statements about modern U.S. family life is trueSexual activity is more satisfying to people who are in sustained relationships such as marriageThe family that an individual forms by having or adopting children is a/anFamily of procreationConflict explanations of family problems such as high rates of divorce and overall family instability focus on:How exploitation of the lower classes by the upper classes contributes to family problems.The extraction of raw materials and natural resources from the environment isPrimary sector productionWhat is an example of a shared monopoly in the United States?Automobile manufacturersThe situation in which members of the board of directors of one corporation also sit on the boards of other corporations is known asInterlocking corporate directoratesWhich of the following terms is defined as part-time work, temporary work, or subcontracted work that offers advantages to employers but can be detrimental to the welfare of workers?Contingent workThe political entity that possesses a legitimate monopoly over the use of force within its territory to achieve its goals isthe stateWhat is the term that sociologists use to describe the situation where charismatic authority is succeeded by a bureaucracy controlled by a rationally established authority or by a combination of traditional and bureaucratic authority?Routinization of charismaWhen cities developed circa 3500-3000 B.C.E., political power became centralized inCity-stateWhich of the following types of government requires that citizens be able to meet together regularly to debate and decide the issues of the day?Direct participatory democracyWhich manifest function of education is illustrated by the fact that, at a very young age, children learn the appropriate attitudes and behavior for the student role?SocializationWhat term do sociologists use to refer to social assets that include values, beliefs, attitudes, and competencies in language and culture?Cultural capitalWhich of the following educational funding systems allows students and their families to spend a specified sum of government money to purchase education at the school of their choice?Voucher systemWhich of the following terms is defined as the transmission of cultural values and attitudes, such as conformity and obedience to authority, through implied demands found in rules, routines, and regulations of schools?Hidden curriculumWhen groups act out their religious beliefs in the form of symbolic actions that represent religious meanings, the symbolic actions are referred to asRitualsWhich social thinker referred to religion as "the opium of the masses"?Karl MarxThe type of health-care system in which all citizens receive medical services paid for by tax revenues isUniversal health careThe set of patterned expectations that defines the norms and values appropriate for individuals who are sick and for those who interact with them is calledThe sick roleWhat is the term that Max Weber used to describe the extent to which persons within a particular layer of stratification have access to important scarce resources?Life chancesAccording to the functionalist perspective, graduates of the most elite colleges and universities attain high positions becauseThey are the most qualifiedIn the United States, the belief that people who work hard and play by the rules will be rewarded with success is known asThe American DreamThe combined measure of social class that sociologists use to classify individuals, families, or households in terms of indicators such as income, occupation, and education isSocioeconomic statusThe conflict approach to measuring classidentifies ownership of the means of production as the distinguishing feature of classesA hierarchy in which persons are placed in occupational positions according to their ability and credentials isMeritocracyPeople who are poor, seldom employed, and caught in long-term deprivation are members of theUnderclassSociologist Max Weber did NOT view the concept of social class as a specific social category of "real people," but as a/anIdeal typeHow do the views of Max Weber and Karl Marx differ concerning the concept of social class?Weber added to Marx's insights by developing a multidimensional explanation of the class structure and identifying additional classesWhat is a true statement about the unequal distribution of income and wealth in the United States?The wealthiest 20 percent of households receive almost 50 percent of the total income "pie."The situation in which women are disproportionately represented among individuals living in poverty is referred to asThe feminization of poverty.All of the following are reasons why social inequality may increase in the United States in the twenty-first century, EXCEPTpeople living in poverty are effectively demanding a larger share of the U.S. budget.Even when people of color achieve high incomes and prestigious careers, their life chances are often diminished byRacismThe economic gain derived from wages, salaries, income transfers, and ownership of property isIncomeWhich of the following refers to a reduction in the proficiency needed to perform a specific job that leads to a corresponding reduction in the wages for that job?Job deskillingWhich characteristic of professionals is demonstrated when they go beyond their self-interest or personal comfort in order to help a patient or client?AltruismWorking-class occupations that are relatively low-paying, nonmanual, semiskilled positions primarily held by women are referred to asPink-collar occupationsThe shift from manufacturing to service occupations in the U.S. economy has contributed toThe loss of higher-paying positions.Sociologists define race as a category of people whoHave been singled out as inferior or superior on the basis of physical characteristics.How would functionalists classify a baseball umpire who dislikes African-Americans but is scrupulous about making correct calls when African-Americans are at bat?A prejudiced nondiscriminatorThe extermination of 6 million European Jews by Nazi Germany during World War II is best described by which of the following terms?GenocideSociologists who argue that class is more important than race in explaining relationships between the members of different races suggest thatAfrican-Americans have been adversely affected by the changing U. S. economy.What term is defined as the attitudes, behaviors, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex and are learned through the socialization process?Gender roleSociologists point out that gender-appropriate behavior isLearned through the socialization process.Which of the following concepts is illustrated in a negative sense by a factory that pays male assembly-line workers a higher hourly rate than women employees who do the same work?Pay equity or comparable worthWhich theoretical perspective is illustrated by the view that women's roles as nurturers and caregivers ensure that important societal tasks will be fulfilled and family members' needs provided for?Functionalist perspectivePrejudice and discrimination against people on the basis of age isAgeismWhat is NOT a true statement regarding elder abuse?Dependency of older persons on their children often leads to elder abuseIn which type of family structure is authority held by the eldest female (usually the mother)?MatriarchalIn preindustrial societies, adolescents are usually viewed asAdultsEmile Durkheim believed that people in preindustrial societies feel a more or less automatic sense of belonging, a condition he referred to asMechanical solidarityFerdinand Tönnies' concept of Gesellschaft refers toA large, urban society in which social bonds are based on impersonal and specialized relationships, with little long-term commitment to the group or consensus on valuesIn Gesellschaft societies, a prevailing core value is that peopleBe able to take care of themselvesWhich of the following concepts is illustrated by the situation in which a local church is destroyed by fire and the congregation members still worship together in a makeshift setting?Social solidarityThe specialty area of sociology that studies human population characteristics and changes isDemographyThe number of deaths per 1,000 people in a population in a given year is theCrude death rateWhat is NOT a major push factor affecting migration?Employment opportunitiesThomas Malthus stated that the human population, if left unchecked, would exceed theAvailable food supplyWhat is NOT a factor that limited preindustrial cities?Lack of a sense of community.Which of the following models of urban growth views the city as a series of circular areas, characterized by different types of land use, that develop from a central core?Concentric zone modelWhich of the following is the process by which members of the middle and upper middle classes, especially whites, move into the central city area and renovate existing properties?GentrificationWhich of the following terms describes the situation in which the number of births plus immigrants is equal to the number of deaths plus emigrants?Zero population growthNew urban fringes that have arisen beyond central cities and suburbs are referred to asEdge citiesWhich of the following terms is defined as one or more central cities and their surrounding suburbs that dominate the economic and cultural life of a region?MetropolisWhat is not an example of light industry in postindustrial cities?Automobile manufacturingA collection of two or more people who interact frequently with one another, share a sense of belonging, and have a feeling of interdependence is a/anSocial groupSociologists point out that in-group and out-group distinctionsmay encourage social cohesion among group members.For a person who strongly believes in the value of human rights and equal opportunity, which of the following would NOT constitute a reference group?Ku Klux KlanWhat is NOT a true statement regarding deviance?Definitions of deviance are similar from place to place, from time to time, and from group to group.Strain theorists suggest that deviant behavior is caused byLack of access to legitimate means to achieve acceptable goals.Which of the following types of deviance is illustrated by a situation in which a person who smokes marijuana is labeled as a "stoner," and then accepts this label and socializes only with others who use marijuana on a regular basis?Secondary devianceInformation provided by individuals or groups that have a vested interest in furthering their own cause or damaging an opposing one isPropgandaCultural lag occurs whenthe nonmaterial culture has not caught up with material development.What has NOT resulted from shift in population distribution from central cities to suburban areas in the United States?Greater racial integration of schools.Grassroots environmental movements are types ofReform movementsWhich approach to social movements assumes that a collective definition of appropriate and inappropriate behavior emerges during episodes of collective behavior?Emergent norm theoryThe lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society isSocializationWhich of the following concepts was used by Charles Horton Cooley to indicate that the self is a product of social interactions with other people?"Looking-glass" selfPersons whose care, affection, and approval are especially desired and who are most important in the development of the self are referred to by sociologists asSignificant othersThe physical or tangible creations that members of a society make, use, and share are collectively referred to asMaterial cultureIt has been said that some Native North American languages have over 20 words to describe snow, which is an illustration ofthe Sapir-Whorf hypthesisThe standards by which people define what is right and wrong, good and bad, desirable and undesirable are calledValuesWhat term refers to the ways in which an individual shows an awareness that another is present without making this person the object of particular attention?Civil inattentionWhat is Erving Goffman's term for the study of social interaction that compares everyday life to a theatrical presentation?Dramaturgical analysisThe process by which perception of reality is shaped largely by the subjective meaning that is given to an experience is calledthe social construction of reality.Which British sociologist is credited with coining the phrase "survival of the fittest"?Herbert SpencerFrench sociologist Auguste Comte's belief that the world can best be understood through scientific inquiry is known asPositivismWhich of the following sociologists identified ideal-type characteristics of bureaucracy?Max WeberSociologist Jane Addams was active in poor urban areas as a leader of community centers referred to asSettlement housesSociologist Emile Durkheim is noted for his study ofsuicide.What is NOT a true statement regarding qualitative research?Researchers typically utilize complex statistical techniques.Which of the following terms refers to the extent to which a study or research instrument accurately measures what it is intended to measure?ValidA printed research instrument containing a series of items to which subjects respond is calleda questionnaireWhat term is illustrated by a situation in which researchers studying the political party preferences of New Mexico residents draw up a list of 3,000 New Mexico residents who are statistically found to be typical of the state's population?Representative sampleIn a scientific experiment, the group that is NOT exposed to the independent variable is known as thecontrol group.The conflict perspective is based primarily on the ideas ofKarl MarxLatent functions of institutions areunconscious or unintendedWhich sociological perspective would argue that professional football exists because it satisfies the needs of players, owners, and an audience?Symbolic interactionist perspectiveWhich of the following terms is defined as a set of logically interrelated statements that attempt to describe, explain, and (occasionally) predict social events?TheoryConflict theorists and functional theorists primarily utilize which of the following levels of analysis?Macro-level analysisa system in which promotion is based on individual ability or achievementmeritocracysocial epidemiologythe study of how health and disease are distributed throughout a society's populationcollective bargainingProcess by which a union representing a group of workers negotiates with management for a contractbiological factsexsocial definitiongenderOrganic solidarityDurkheim's term for the interdependence that results from people needing others to fulfill their jobs; solidarity based on the interdependence brought about by the division of labour