Test 4 Terms
Terms in this set (49)
1) Author of a Gospel (for example, Matthew or Mark) 2) Someone who preaches the Gospel
1) A word that means "good news" 2) Books that tell of Jesus. In the New Testament, these are narratives of Jesus' life. Some extracanonical Gospels focus only on the sayings of Jesus 3) The message about what Jesus accomplishes for the relationship between God and humanity and for relations about fellow human beings.
An image of what the actual person Jesus was like and what he did, without the interpretations of the church. Some present-day scholars work as though they were able to present the facts about Jesus' life without at the same time inserting their own interpretations.
The rules regarding food that Jews observe. These include regulations that prohibit eating certain foods and rules for how to slaughter animals. Some rules concern what may be eaten together. Such observances are a part of what set Jews apart as a holy people.
The material about Jesus (both stories about what he did and remembrances of what he said) that were passed on by word of mouth before they were written down.
Designation for the written source that contained the preserved sayings of Jesus; both Matthew and Luke used it to supplement the material they found in Mark. No copies of this work have survived.
Jewish holy day, Saturday. It is observed, in part, by refraining from work.
Designation for Matthew, Mark, and Luke, given because they are alike in so many ways. The Synoptic Problem is the question of how these Gospels are related to one another. Most interpreters think they have some literary relationship.
A list of aphorisms in the Sermon on the Mount in which Jesus sets out the attitudes his followers should adopt. These attitudes of the "blessed" are countercultural or contrary to any expectation of the way things are in the world.
The only name the Gospel of John gives for the disciple who sat next to Jesus in its account of the Last Supper. This Gospel also identifies him as the source of the material in that Gospel. He seems to be from Judea rather than Galilee because so many of the stories of Gospel of John that are not in the Synoptics occur in Judea.
Song/poem Zechariah recites when he gets his voice back at the naming of John the Baptist.
Mother of John the Baptist in Luke. She is a relative of Mary, the mother of Jesus.
Getting a demon out of a person.
The way Matthew interprets the life of Jesus through passages taken from the Hebrew Bible. He introduces these quotations with the phrase, "This was done to fulfill what was spoken by the prophet ___."
Central character in a parable of Jesus. He helps a person who has been beaten and robbed. He is an example of the way Luke emphasizes outcasts because his ethnic identity made him objectionable as the story's hero to those in Jesus' audience.
Herod the Great
Ruler of Judea, Samaria, Galilee, and the Decapolis from 37 to 4 BCE. In Matthew's Gospel he is still in power at the birth of Jesus. He was a ruthless and domineering ruler, but he also carried out a number of public works projects, including the enormous expansion of the temple in Jerusalem.
John the Baptist
Cousin of Jesus who baptizes Jesus as Jesus begins his ministry. He acts as the one who prepares for the ministry of Jesus in the Gospels. Some scholars think that Jesus was a follower of him before Jesus began his independent ministry.
In the new testament, he is the husband of Mary.
Kingdom of Heaven
Matthew's way of referring to kingdom of God. This expression shows Matthew's Jewish sensibilities because he is avoiding direct mention of God.
Lord's Prayer (Our Father)
Prayer Jesus teaches his disciples. In Matthew it appears in the Sermon on the Mount; a shorter version appears in Luke.
Astrologers and wise men. In Matthew, a group of them follow a star to find the infant Jesus.
Song/poem Mary sings in Luke when Elizabeth recognizes something special about her when Mary is pregnant with Jesus.
Mother of Jesus. She is a leading character in Luke's infancy narrative. Even though she appears only occasionally in the Gospel's narratives of the ministry of Jesus, she is present at the crucifixion.
A motif primarily in the Gospel of Mark in which Jesus is portrayed as commanding his followers to silence about his Messianic mission.
The story of the birth of Jesus; Matthew and Luke have very different stories about Jesus' birth.
Jewish teacher who came to see Jesus in the Gospel of John.
The last week of Jesus' life, the time that he suffers and dies (the word passion is derived from a Latin word for suffering).
Roman procurator of Palestine who condemns Jesus to death.
Belief that Christ existed with God before being born as Jesus.
Accounts of encounters with the resurrected Christ. These accounts in the canonical Gospels relate seemingly contradictory things about the nature of the resurrected Christ's body.
Sermon on the Mount
First of 5 discourses (speeches) in Matthew. Matthew composes this discourse mostly from Q material. The material in the Sermon on the Mount includes:the Beatitudes, the Lord's Prayer, and a series of Jesus' interpretations of the Law.
Son of God
Claim made for Jesus in many Jew Testament writings. It asserts that Jesus has an extraordinarily intimate relationship with God.
Son of Man (of a human)
Ambiguous phrase referring to a person or a moral, but in the Gospels it designates Jesus as one who has an eschatological role. When these writers provide any clues about the phrase's meaning, it refers to the one who comes on the clouds bringing God's judgement. This understanding develops from the use of the expression in Daniel 7:13-14.
An episode in the Gospels in which Jesus is transformed into a glorious (that is, shiny) state.
The inner circle of followers that the Gospels have Jesus gather around him. There are twelve so they can represent the eschatologically reconstituted people of Israel, who represent the people of God.
A way John speaks of the identity of the preexistent Christ. Drawing on Israel's wisdom tradition, John has it assist God in the creation and sustaining of the world, as well as being the clearest revelation of God in the world.
Heard the angel's announcement that he would have a son. He would not be able to speak until his child was named. Husband of Elizabeth.
Early member of the Jerusalem church who becomes a missionary of the Antioch church. From there he recruits Paul to be a missionary with him and they travel together in southeastern Asia Minor (Turkey) establishing churches that are made up primarily of Gentiles
The Roman centurion, who in Acts 10-11 becomes the first Gentile convert to the church.
In about the year 50, Paul and Barnabas go to Jerusalem to discuss with the leaders of that church whether Gentile members of the church has to be circumcised and begin to observe the Torah as Jews did. This basic question was whether Gentiles had to become full proselytes to Judaism in order to be full members of the church.
The eschatological time. The New Testament writers assert that the rest of human history will take place in the final days because the death and resurrection of Jesus ushered in the last period of the way God is present in the world.
Roman emperor, 37068. He accused the church of setting the fire that damaged much of the city of Rome in 64. This may be the first time that the Roman government officially identified members of the church as a grop that was something other than simply a sect within Judaism.
A persecutor of the church who has an experience of the risen Christ on the way to Damascus that leads him to become a believer. He becomes the apostle and leading missionary to the Gentiles in the first generation of the church. His letters to his churches account for more books in the New Testament than any other author.
A harvest festival within Judaism that also celebrates the giving of the Law to Moses. The pilgrimage feast comes fifty days after the Passover. In Acts, it is on this feast day that the church comes into existence.
Leader among the disciples of Jesus who becomes known as the apostle of the Jews.
A Gentile who converts fully to Judaism.
Jewish name of the persecutor of the church who has an experience of the risen Christ on the road to Damascus and becomes the apostle Paul.
First Christian martyr (Acts 7). He was also one of the first people appointed as a deacon in the Jerusalem church.