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Pearson-Prentice hall text


substance that removes sensation with or without loss of consciousness


One of the fenced-in or hedged-in fields created by wealthy British landowners on land that was formerly worked by village farmers

James Watt

Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)


to separate iron from its ore, which required coal rather than charcoal. This change in method made cheaper and better-quality iron, and therefore a rise in iron innovations.

Seed Drill

created by Jethro Tull, it allowed farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows at specific depths; this boosted crop yields

Industrial Revolution

the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.

Agricultural Revolution

The transformation of farming that resulted in the eighteenth century from the spread of new crops, improvements in cultivation techniques and livestock breeding, and consolidation of small holdings into large farms from which tenants were expelled (600)


the study of collecting, organizing, and interpreting data


wealth in the form of money or property owned by a person or business and human resources of economic value


willingness to take new ventures; initiative; business organization; plan (that is difficult or daring); Ex. their latest enterprise to sail round the world in a small boat


a person who starts up and takes on the risk of a business

Putting out system

system of merchant-capitalists "putting out" raw materials to cottage workers for processing and payment that was fully developed in England

Eli Whitney

United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825)


privately built road that charges a fee to travelers who use it


a large city in northwestern England


Industrial city in Northern England, which greatly increased in population during the Industrial Revolution. Because of the Rotten Boroughs, its interests were underrepresented in Parliament during the early 19th century.


movement of population from farms to cities


a low-cost apartment building that often has poor standards of sanitation, safety, and comfort and is designed to house as many families as possible

Labor Union

an organization of employees formed to bargain with the employer


the act of contaminating or polluting

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