Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Cognitive Psych Exam 2
Terms in this set (40)
"Perceiving machines" are used by the U.S. Postal service to "read" the addresses on letters and sort them quickly to their correct destinations. Sometimes, these machines cannot read an address, because the writing on the envelope is not sufficiently clear for the machine to match the writing to an example it has stored in memory. Human postal workers are much more successful at reading unclear addresses, most likely because of
their in-depth understanding of principles of perception.
repeated practice at the task.
Gauthier and coworkers' experiment on experience-dependent plasticity showed that after extensive "Greeble recognition" training sessions, FFA neurons had a(n) _______ response to faces and an _________ response to Greebles.
In the text's use of the Olympic Rings example, which Gestalt law contributes to the correct perception of five interlocking circles?
The landmark discrimination problem is more difficult to do if you have damage to your _____lobe
When Carlos moved to the U.S., he did not understand any English. Phrases like "Anna Mary Can Pi And I Scream Class Hick" didn't make any sense to him. Now that Carlos has been learning English, he recognizes this phrase as "An American Pie and Ice Cream Classic." This example illustrates that Carlos was not capable of ____ in English.
The sequence of steps that includes the image on the retina, changing the image into electrical signals, and neural processing is an example of _____ processing.
The perception pathway corresponds to the _____ pathway, while the action pathway corresponds to the _____ pathway.
Sensation : Perception :
Gathering : Understanding
The activation of feature detection cells in perception most clearly supports which of the following ideas?
That our brains process direct, physical "data" in the environment in order to perceive
Joan has damage to her right temporal lobe and can no longer identify faces, but can identify other body parts normally. Juan has damage to his a portionof his occipital lobe and, although he can recognize his friends' faces, can no longer identify various body parts. This evidence suggests
a double dissociation between the perception of faces and body parts
A bottom-up process is involved in fixating on an area of a scene that
has high stimulus salience
According to Treisman's "attenuation model," which of the following would you expect to have the highest threshold for most people?
The word "home"
According to your text, the ability to divide attention depends on all of the following EXCEPT
Broadbent's model is called an early selection model because
incoming information is selected by the detector.
only a select set of environmental information enters the system.
the filter eliminates unattended information right at the beginning of the flow of information.
Colin Cherry's experiment in which participants listened to two different messages, one presented to each ear, found that people
could focus on one message and ignore the other one at the same time
Difficulty in recognizing an alteration - even a very obvious one - in a scene is called ________ blindness.
During a visit to the local museum, you appreciate the incredible beauty of the paintings displayed on the wall. Your ability to see the paintings as complete pictures rather than individual, disconnected dots of color, texture, and location is because of a process called _______
Eye tracking studies investigating attention as we carry out actions such as making a peanut butter sandwich shows that a person's eye movements
were determined primarily by the task
In Schneider and Shiffrin's experiment, in which participants were asked to indicate whether a target stimulus was present in a series of rapidly presented "frames," divided attention was easier
once processing had become automatic
The Stroop effect demonstrates
how automatic processing can interfere with intended processing.
Strayer and Johnston's (2001) experiment involving simulated driving and the use of "hands-free" vs. "handheld" cell phones found that
talking on either kind of phone impairs driving performance significantly and to the same extent.
Suppose you are in your kitchen writing a grocery list, while your roommate is watching TV in the next room. A commercial for spaghetti sauce comes on TV. Although you are not paying attention to the TV, you "suddenly" remember that you need to pick up spaghetti sauce and add it to the list. Your behavior is best predicted by which of the following models of attention?
Which of the following options would not be an important factor in automatic processing?
The mental spotlight of attention is most closely associated with _________ attention.
Colby et al. (1995) measured single cell activation for monkeys participating in an attention task. Some monkeys had to respond when a peripheral light faded, others did not. One of the conclusions from this research is that
neural responding was enhanced only for the monkeys who had to attend to the activities of the light, even though overt attention was never applied.
Considering the evidence provided about theories of attention, which kind of theory receives the most research attention and support today?
a.Load Theories of Attention
b.Early Selection Theories
c.Feature Integration Theories
According to the model of working memory, which of the following mental tasks should LEAST adversely affect people's driving performance while operating a car along an unfamiliar, winding road?
Trying to remember the definition of a word they just learned
Brief sensory memory for sound is known as
Funahashi and coworkers recorded neurons in the PF cortex of monkeys during a delayed response task. These neurons showed the most intense firing during
Given what we know about the operation of the phonological loop, which of the following word lists would be most difficult for people to retain for 15 seconds?
MAC, CAN, CAP, MAN, MAP
It is easier to perform two tasks at the same time if
one is handled by the sketch pad and one is handled by the phonological loop.
Jill's friends tell her they think she has a really good memory. She finds this interesting so she decides to purposefully test her memory. Jill receives a list of to-do tasks each day at work. Usually, she checks off each item as the day progresses, but this week, she is determined to memorize the to-do lists. On Monday, Jill is proud to find that she remembers 95 percent of the tasks without referring to the list. On Tuesday, her memory drops to 80 percent, and by Thursday, she is dismayed to see her performance has declined to 20 percent. Jill's memory is declining over the course of the week because other information she encounters is "competing" with that which she memorized on Monday. This process is called
Models designed to explain mental functioning are constantly refined and modified to explain new results. Which of the following exemplifies this concept based on the results presented in your text?
Replacing the STM component of the modal model with working memory
Neural ________ refers to a neural response, usually brain activation measured by fMRI, to determine what a person is perceiving or thinking.
Peterson and Peterson studied how well participants can remember groups of three letters (like BRT, QSD) after various delays. They found that participants remembered an average of 80 percent of the groups after 3 seconds but only 10 percent after 18 seconds. They hypothesized that this decrease in performance was due to _____, but later research showed that it was actually due to _____.
STM's capacity is best estimated as seven (plus or minus two)
Shanta has frontal lobe damage. She is doing a problem solving task in which she has to choose the red object out of many choices. She can easily complete this repeatedly, but when the experimenter asks her to choose the blue object on a new trial of the task, she continues to choose the red one, even when the experimenter gives her feedback that she is incorrect. Shanta is displaying
Sperling's delayed partial report procedure provided evidence that
information in sensory memory fades within 1 or 2 seconds.
Working memory differs from short-term memory in that
working memory is concerned with both holding and processing information.
Individuals with higher working memory spans tend to
All of the stated options are correct.
score better on the SATs.
reason more consistently across problems.
experience higher test anxiety.
All of the stated options are correct.
Recommended textbook explanations
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Sets found in the same folder
Exam 5 (Ch. 12-13)
Intro to Cognitive Psychology- Chpt. 4
PSYC 345 Schumacher Ch. 3
PSYC 345: Exam 2: Week 5: T&F
Sets with similar terms
PSYC 345 Exam 2
Cognitive Psych Unit 2
Other sets by this creator
DRUG ADDICTION & THERAPY
Social Psych Final
NeuroPsych Midterm (Savannah)
Other Quizlet sets
PSYC 212 - Midterm 2 (Revised)
PSYC341 Exam 2 Practice Questions
Exam #4 Chapter 6
Psych 224 Ch 2