study the links between biological activity and psychological events
carry messages from the body's tissues and sensory organs inward to the brain and spinal cord, for processing.
carry instructions from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.
positive outside/negative-inside state
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft.
chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
a neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron.
"morphine within"- natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
peripheral nervous system
the sensory and motor neurons that control the body's skeletal muscles.
bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the CNS with muscles, glands, and sense organs.
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles.
autonomic nervous system
the part of the PNS that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Includes SNS and PNS
sympathetic nervous system
arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
parasympathetic nervous system
calms the body, conserving its energy.
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues.
a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine & norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress.
under the influence of the hypothalamus, regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. Show brain anatomy.
the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skill. Responsible for automatic survival functions.
the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance.
neural system (including hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives.
two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion.
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons.
portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments
portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position
portion of cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from the visual fields.
portion of cerebral cortex above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear.
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements.
area at front of parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations.
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.
the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience.
the formation of new neurons
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them.
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. prescribes "proper" behavior.
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional amount in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
a set of expected behaviors for males or females.
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role.
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
a social interaction in which one person suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.
a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors.
a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others.
the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment.
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.
analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information
information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations.
the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them.
the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time.
signal detection theory
a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background noise. Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and alertness.
below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness
the activation (often unconsciously) of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response.
the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference.
the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount)
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation.
conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret.
the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light (blue, green, ect.)
the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave's amplitude.
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters.
a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening.
the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina.
the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.
the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina.
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond.
retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. Detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.
the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, no receptor cells are located there.
the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster.
nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement.
the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for may functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.
Young-Helmholtz trichromatic (three-color) theory
the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors- one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue- which, when stimulated in combination, can produce the perception of any color.
the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others vice versa
an organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
the organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground)
the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups
the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows to judge distance.
depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depend on the use of two eyes
a binocular cue for perceiving depth: by comparing images from the retinas in the two eyes, the brain computes distance- the greater the difference between the two images, the closer the object. e.g. finger sausage
depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone.
an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession
perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change.
perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wave-lengths reflected by the object
in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field.
a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another.
human factor psychology
explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use.
extrasensory perception (ESP)
the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input. Includes telepathy (mind-to-mind communication), clairvoyance (perceiving remote events), and precognition (perceiving future events).
the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis.
learning that certain events occur together (classical and operant conditioning)
initial stage in classical conditioning when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begin triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and stimuli that do not signal an US
occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
law of effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely
chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer
reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
innately reinforcing stimulus, satisfies biological need (ex: eating)
reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses. (Free drink every 10 purchased drinks)
reinforces response after an unpredictable number of responses. (gambling)
reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed. (waiting for jello to set- know when jello should set)
reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals. (checking email- don't know when you're going to get email)
learning that is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
the processing of information into the memory system
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
encoding of meaning (e.g. of words)
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation.
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined- at the heart of false memories
the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
a mental image or best example of a category.
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently
a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set
a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
the way an issue is posed; can significantly affect decisions and judgments
in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of the word (such as a prefix)
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language
the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to household language
stage in speech development, from about ages 1-2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words
beginning at about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram, using mostly nouns and verbs
impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)
controls language expression- an area, usually in the left frontal lobe, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
controls language reception- a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in left temporal lobe
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level.
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior.
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.
a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake
a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened behavior
reinforcement occurs every time desired response occurs
a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
hostile, enjoys arguments
neat, ordered, compulsive, upset with change, dislikes dealing with emotions