Chapter 8 psych

Classical conditioning
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Terms in this set (32)
PunishmentOutcome of performed behavior is unpleasant, decreases likelihood that behavior will be repeated in the futureResponse costOutcome of a performed behavior is the removal of a pleasant stimuli, decreases likelihood that behavior will be repeated in futureLaw of effectEvery action has an outcome that either does or does not satisfy, satisfying outcomes are to be repeated and non-satisfying outcomes are notPrimary reinforcersBiological needsSecondary reinforcersPsychological needsSocial reinforcerspositive affirmations from other peopleSelf-reinforcementsInternal reinforcements after doing something they were trying to do. Social reinforcements of either punishing or approving your actions as if you were being judged by someone elseSuccessive ApproximationWhen reinforcers are generalized then reinforced only when actions is closer to desired result. (toilet training)Continuous reinforcementbehavior followed by reward every timePartial reinforcementbehavior followed by reward sometimesDiscriminative stimulusa stimulus that turns the behavior on and off. Behavior is under "stimulus control"Premack principle (Grandma's Rule)Use a high frequency activity to reinforce a low frequency behaviorMaladaptive behavioro When random event is liked to behavior making random event reinforcer § (superstition)Albert Bandura (Bobo the clown)o Observational learning o Modeling o Aggression: When violence is condoned, rewarded, or not punished --> it leads to observational learning of violent behavior as goodVicarious Emotional Arousal (empathy)Observation of emotional arousal in others causes same emotional arousal in observer. Leads to emotional state that prepares you to be CC, although you are not experiencing the stimulus response sequence directlyVicarious reinforcemento Implies that there is some sort of thought process that influences learning o Observe consequences of others' actions § Learning by people's successes and failures · Behavioral expectanciesOutcome Expectancy· Idea that people hold expectancies and that those expectations influence actionObservational learningLearning through observingPerformanceaction of behavioral patternSkill deficitsomeone with a skill deficit is literally unable to so something that is necessary or desirableMastery modelshows no fear regarding what the person in therapy is afraid ofCoping modelInitially shows fear but overcomes it and eventually handles the situation