The first news of the disease came from Spain, they were not in the war so there was no censorship to what they could release in newspapers. The other countries in the war wouldn't report it as it would ruin morale of the soldiers
Norwalk virusFoodborne illness caused by a virus found in untreated water sources.What is number one cause of foodborne illnessbacteriaDifferent retail food risk types4 risk typesRisk Type 1 -Any establishment that prepares, serves or sells only pre-packaged, non-potentially hazardous foods or only heats foods in hot holdings but does not cool.
Examples: Blockbusters, StaplesRisk type 2Any establishment that prepares, cooks and serves most products immediately and limits hot and cold holdings of potentially hazardous foods after preparation or cooking to two or fewer items.
Example: A deli, fish marketRisk 3Risk Type 3 - Any establishment that requires the handling of raw ingredients and is involved in the cooking, serving, cooling and reheating of at least three or more potentially hazardous foods
Example: Full service restaurants, diners, catering operationsRisk 4Any specialized food establishment or a retail food establishment that conducts specialized processes such as smoking, curing, canning, bottling, or acidification.
Examples: Sushi establishments, Smoke meat housesClean does not mean food establishment is safe to eatSANITATION clean establishment does not mean food safetybacterial growth requiresFood source (Usually a protein)
At least one organism
Time to multiply (Usually every 20 minutes)
Moderate temperatureFAATOMFood Acidity Time Temperature
Oxygen and the Moisturepotentially hazardous foodsAny food or ingredients, natural or synthetic, capable of supporting rapid growth microorganisms:
Examples. Bacon Mayo Sauces Garlic in oil
Beans Onions Seeds Eggs
Cheese Pasta Rice Sprouts
Pastries Soy Protein Potatosafe cooking temperatures poultry165ºF - Poultry and poultry stuffing's, re-heated foodsSafe cooking temperature beef155ºF - Ground Beef, HamburgersSafe cooking temperature of fish and pig145ºF - Fish and Pork products
Foods must reach above temperatures and hold for at least 15 secondsRefrigerators kill bacteria if not whatCooling food rulesRapidly cool all foods:
from 135ºF to 41ºF in six hours or less
From 135ºF to 70ºF in 2 hours or less
From 70ºF to 41ºF in 4 hours or less
Place food in uncovered shallow pans
(2 to 4 inches)
Use an ice bath to cool thick product (stirring often)
Withhold some water in recipes, then add ice at the end of cooking.
Temperature must reach 70 degrees with in two hoursHot holding above what temperatureAll hot foods must be held at 135ºF or aboveNorwalk Virus (Norovirus)Onset: 24 to 48 hours
Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, low-grade fever
Lasts for 24-60 hours
Foods implicated: clams, oysters, fruits, salads, eggs, and bakery items
Requires very few viral particlesHepatitis A (acute)Onset: 15-50 days
Symptoms: Fever, malaise, anorexia, nausea, abdominal discomfort, jaundice
Foods Implicated: Food contaminated by infected food handlers, raw or under cooked mollusks from contaminated water, contaminated produce
Requires very few viral particlesRotavirus
(virus)Onset: 1-3 days
Symptoms: Vomiting, diarrhea, temporary lactose intolerance, low-grade fever, dehydration
Lasts about 4-8 days
Infected food handlers may contaminate foods that require handling and no further cooking, such as salads, fruits, and hors d'oeuvres.
Can be transmitted very easily through contaminated hands utensilsSalmonella bacteriaOnset: 3 to 12 hours
Symptoms: Abdominal pain, diarrhea Nausea & Vomiting - lasts 1 day or less
Foods Implicated: Raw meat, poultry, milk & dairy products, shrimp, frog legs, yeast, coconuts, pasta and chocolateCamplyobacteriosis
(bacteria)Onset: 2-5 days (1-103 hours_
Symptoms: Diarrhea, fever, nausea, abdominal pain, headache
Foods Implicated: Unpasteurized milk and dairy products, poultry, pork, beef, and lambE. coli O157:H7Onset: 3 to 9 days
Symptoms: Severe abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea, nausea, low grade fever
Lasts 1 day or less
Foods Implicated: Ground beef, poultry, un-pasteurized apple juice, sprouts and lettuceListeriaOnset: 1 day to 3 weeks
Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, headache, fever, chills, backache, meningitis
Foods Implicated: Unpasteurized milk and cheese, vegetables, poultry and meats, seafood, and prepared, chilled, read-to-eat foodsClostridiumOnset: 6-24 hours, usually 10-12 hours
Symptoms: Sudden outset of colic followed by diarrhea, nausea
Lasts 1 day or less
Foods Implicated: Inadequately heated or re-heated meats, usually stews, meat pies, and gravies made of beef , turkey, or chickenImproper cooked hamburgers associated with what bacteriaEcoli salmonellaBacteria associated with improper cooked chickenSalmonellaThree compartment sink what is the processStep 1: Scrape off all residue from item
Step 2: Wash with hot soapy water
Step 3: Rinse in hot clean water
(95º F - 110º F)
Step 4: Sanitize - Submerse the item in chlorine solution for one minute.
(check with test strips)
Step 5: Air dry - no towelingNo bare hand contact with ready to eat food -examplesProhibition of bare hand contact with ready-to-eat foods
Use spoons, forks, spatulas, and disposable gloves with ready-to-eat foods
Single-use gloves are used for one task only then discarded when damaged, soiled or when interruptions occur in the operation.
Working with raw animal food
Working with ready-to-eat food
NO bare hand contact with ready-to-eat foodWash detergent hot water rinse hot water sanitize 1 minute 50 ppm chlorineInfiltration/percolationInfiltration/percolation - into the soil, also runoff back to oceans, lakes, streams, rivers etc.Water covers ___% of the Earth's surface71 percentWhat percentage of water is salt water97.% (all found in oceans)Fresh water percentageHumans and animals require freshwater for consumption, which makes up only 3% of the total amount of waterWho is the largest consumer of waterThre biggest water consumers in the world is
Agriculture ,industry and households or individuals useAgicultureAgiculture number waste of water 60% is lost in evaporationProblems with irrigation and how it can impact consumersIrrigation carries runoff Pesticides Fertilizers. Animal waste.
All contaminate drinking water suppliesHow can we conserve water?Turn off the water while you brush your teeth
Turn off the water while shaving
Take shorter showers
Don't let the water run constantly while you're washing or rinsing dishes
Fill a pitcher with tap water and put it in the fridge, instead of running the tap every time you want a cold drink!Surface water examplesOcean water
WetlandsGroundwater exampleAquifers are underground reservoirs
Brought to the surface by springs
Water tables are under topsoilSurface water polluted byContaminated by runoff, spills, dumping, acid rain
ReservoirsGround water pollutionGroundwater in aquifers or wells are contaminated by pollutants that percolate or leach through the soil.
Underground storage tanks, leaking pits, ponds, and lagoons are sources of groundwater pollution.
When rainfall is heavy sewers and septic tanks overflowBotulism ltoxin in food causes paralysisTrichinosisis a parasite that is in pork and can go into the brainTwo types of inversions Radiation inversion(Occur at night)Subsidence inversion(Occur mostly during fall and winter months, and may persist for days.)