Test 2 environmental health

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Why was it called the Spanish flu?
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Terms in this set (56)
Norwalk virusFoodborne illness caused by a virus found in untreated water sources.What is number one cause of foodborne illnessbacteriaDifferent retail food risk types4 risk typesRisk Type 1 -Any establishment that prepares, serves or sells only pre-packaged, non-potentially hazardous foods or only heats foods in hot holdings but does not cool. Examples: Blockbusters, StaplesRisk type 2Any establishment that prepares, cooks and serves most products immediately and limits hot and cold holdings of potentially hazardous foods after preparation or cooking to two or fewer items. Example: A deli, fish marketRisk 3Risk Type 3 - Any establishment that requires the handling of raw ingredients and is involved in the cooking, serving, cooling and reheating of at least three or more potentially hazardous foods Example: Full service restaurants, diners, catering operationsRisk 4Any specialized food establishment or a retail food establishment that conducts specialized processes such as smoking, curing, canning, bottling, or acidification. Examples: Sushi establishments, Smoke meat housesClean does not mean food establishment is safe to eatSANITATION clean establishment does not mean food safetybacterial growth requiresFood source (Usually a protein) Some moisture Moderate pH At least one organism Time to multiply (Usually every 20 minutes) Moderate temperatureFAATOMFood Acidity Time Temperature Oxygen and the Moisturepotentially hazardous foodsAny food or ingredients, natural or synthetic, capable of supporting rapid growth microorganisms: Examples. Bacon Mayo Sauces Garlic in oil Beans Onions Seeds Eggs Cheese Pasta Rice Sprouts Pastries Soy Protein Potatosafe cooking temperatures poultry165ºF - Poultry and poultry stuffing's, re-heated foodsSafe cooking temperature beef155ºF - Ground Beef, HamburgersSafe cooking temperature of fish and pig145ºF - Fish and Pork products Foods must reach above temperatures and hold for at least 15 secondsRefrigerators kill bacteria if not whatCooling food rulesRapidly cool all foods: from 135ºF to 41ºF in six hours or less From 135ºF to 70ºF in 2 hours or less From 70ºF to 41ºF in 4 hours or less Place food in uncovered shallow pans (2 to 4 inches) Use an ice bath to cool thick product (stirring often) Withhold some water in recipes, then add ice at the end of cooking. Temperature must reach 70 degrees with in two hoursHot holding above what temperatureAll hot foods must be held at 135ºF or aboveNorwalk Virus (Norovirus)Onset: 24 to 48 hours Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, low-grade fever Lasts for 24-60 hours Foods implicated: clams, oysters, fruits, salads, eggs, and bakery items Requires very few viral particlesHepatitis A (acute)Onset: 15-50 days Symptoms: Fever, malaise, anorexia, nausea, abdominal discomfort, jaundice Foods Implicated: Food contaminated by infected food handlers, raw or under cooked mollusks from contaminated water, contaminated produce Requires very few viral particlesRotavirus (virus)Onset: 1-3 days Symptoms: Vomiting, diarrhea, temporary lactose intolerance, low-grade fever, dehydration Lasts about 4-8 days Infected food handlers may contaminate foods that require handling and no further cooking, such as salads, fruits, and hors d'oeuvres. Can be transmitted very easily through contaminated hands utensilsSalmonella bacteriaOnset: 3 to 12 hours Symptoms: Abdominal pain, diarrhea Nausea & Vomiting - lasts 1 day or less Foods Implicated: Raw meat, poultry, milk & dairy products, shrimp, frog legs, yeast, coconuts, pasta and chocolateCamplyobacteriosis (bacteria)Onset: 2-5 days (1-103 hours_ Symptoms: Diarrhea, fever, nausea, abdominal pain, headache Foods Implicated: Unpasteurized milk and dairy products, poultry, pork, beef, and lambE. coli O157:H7Onset: 3 to 9 days Symptoms: Severe abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea, nausea, low grade fever Lasts 1 day or less Foods Implicated: Ground beef, poultry, un-pasteurized apple juice, sprouts and lettuceListeriaOnset: 1 day to 3 weeks Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, headache, fever, chills, backache, meningitis Foods Implicated: Unpasteurized milk and cheese, vegetables, poultry and meats, seafood, and prepared, chilled, read-to-eat foodsClostridiumOnset: 6-24 hours, usually 10-12 hours Symptoms: Sudden outset of colic followed by diarrhea, nausea Lasts 1 day or less Foods Implicated: Inadequately heated or re-heated meats, usually stews, meat pies, and gravies made of beef , turkey, or chickenImproper cooked hamburgers associated with what bacteriaEcoli salmonellaBacteria associated with improper cooked chickenSalmonellaThree compartment sink what is the processStep 1: Scrape off all residue from item Step 2: Wash with hot soapy water Step 3: Rinse in hot clean water (95º F - 110º F) Step 4: Sanitize - Submerse the item in chlorine solution for one minute. (check with test strips) Step 5: Air dry - no towelingNo bare hand contact with ready to eat food -examplesProhibition of bare hand contact with ready-to-eat foods Use spoons, forks, spatulas, and disposable gloves with ready-to-eat foods Single-use gloves are used for one task only then discarded when damaged, soiled or when interruptions occur in the operation. Working with raw animal food Working with ready-to-eat food NO bare hand contact with ready-to-eat foodWash detergent hot water rinse hot water sanitize 1 minute 50 ppm chlorineInfiltration/percolationInfiltration/percolation - into the soil, also runoff back to oceans, lakes, streams, rivers etc.Water covers ___% of the Earth's surface71 percentWhat percentage of water is salt water97.% (all found in oceans)Fresh water percentageHumans and animals require freshwater for consumption, which makes up only 3% of the total amount of waterWho is the largest consumer of waterThre biggest water consumers in the world is Agriculture ,industry and households or individuals useAgicultureAgiculture number waste of water 60% is lost in evaporationProblems with irrigation and how it can impact consumersIrrigation carries runoff Pesticides Fertilizers. Animal waste. All contaminate drinking water suppliesHow can we conserve water?Turn off the water while you brush your teeth Turn off the water while shaving Take shorter showers Don't let the water run constantly while you're washing or rinsing dishes Fill a pitcher with tap water and put it in the fridge, instead of running the tap every time you want a cold drink!Surface water examplesOcean water Estuaries Rivers, streams Lakes, ponds WetlandsGroundwater exampleAquifers are underground reservoirs Brought to the surface by springs Water tables are under topsoilSurface water polluted byContaminated by runoff, spills, dumping, acid rain Lakes Streams Ponds Rivers ReservoirsGround water pollutionGroundwater in aquifers or wells are contaminated by pollutants that percolate or leach through the soil. Underground storage tanks, leaking pits, ponds, and lagoons are sources of groundwater pollution. When rainfall is heavy sewers and septic tanks overflowBotulism ltoxin in food causes paralysisTrichinosisis a parasite that is in pork and can go into the brainTwo types of inversions Radiation inversion(Occur at night)Subsidence inversion(Occur mostly during fall and winter months, and may persist for days.)