Chapter 10 psych

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Cognitive perspective
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Terms in this set (33)
Attributional styleCharacteristic way in which a person makes attributionSemantic memoryOrganized by meaning, categorize of objects and conceptsEpisodic memorymemory of events and episodes, of experiences in space and timeScriptsPrototype of an event category, gives sense of duration and sense of flow of an eventProcedural knowledgeKnowledge about engaging in a specific behavior or in mental manipulation. Previous known knowledge of certain actionsConnectionist ViewsNeuronal processes are metaphors for cognitive processes. Representations exists in a pattern of activations of an entire network of neurons. Cognition is an activation of networks of simple neuron like units. Pattern of activation emerges from activity. They would say an experience is something constructed by bits of inputs.Dual process modelsIdea that people can process in a symbol and connectionist approachImplicit knowledgeautomatic knowledge that we don't need to consciously bring to memory o Earlier knowledge (tying your shoes) (classical learning)Explicit memoryKnowledge that we need to recall and when we need, access on demandCognitive person variables· five classes of cognitive variables in the person all of which are influenced by learning. Competencies, Encoding, Expecantcies, Behavior outcome expectancy. Self regulatory systems and plansCompetenciesSkills one develops over their lives. Physical/social worldEncoding strategies and personal constructso Covers schemas and how people can react to the same situation differentlyExpectanciesKnowledge of one event with the expectation of another event to followBehavior outcome expectancy§ Belief that particular acts typically lead to particular outcomesSelf regulatory system and plansPeople set goals, plans, and etc that need to be done to see their plans realized in actionCognitive affective processing system· Organization of information about the nature of the situation, other people, and self. A kind of if... then statement for a person or things in an environment. That person isn't aggressive but if this happens they will most likely become aggressive.Priming· When a node is activated before a task that needs the information from that node. It makes memories of that node easier to accessSubliminal primes· Primes that are outside of our awarenessSocial cognitionsCategories for people, gender roles, environmentsNegative cognitive triads (Beck)§ Negative thoughts about self, world, futureSeligman and Abramson's learned helplessness modelUncontrollable stress or adversity leads to passivity and ultimately depression· Beck's cognitive therapyo Phase 1: Make connection between thoughts, feelings, and behaviors § Thought records to identify automatic thoughts and ensuing emotions o Phase 2: challenge validity of cognitions § Recognize erros in thinking, faulty assumptions and cognitive distortions o Phase 3: Reinforce thought-stopping and more positive self-statements through experiments and successful outcomes· Cognitive assessmentso Think-aloud § People are asked to talk a process of thought out loud o Experience sampling § People are asked to report what they are doing and thinking at points in the day o Self-monitoring § People monitor the emotions, actions, and thoughts through out the day.