AP Art History Module 4 Vocab (Etruscan and Roman Art)
Mrs. Shifrin AP Art History Module 4 (Etruscan and Roman Art)
Terms in this set (57)
Early Etruscan Art
The earlier part of Etruscan art, best known for their temples, tombs and vibrant statues.
were similar to Greek temples, but had several important differences. They were made of sun-dried brick with wooden, doric columns supporting a gable-roof. stood on a large stone platform with a single, narrow staircase in the front. They often had three cellas and terracotta statues on the roof. They were not made as "art" to be seen from all sides, as the Greek temples were. They were places to hold statues of gods.
the people who occupied the middle of Italy in the early Roman days. The land now called Tuscany is named for this group of people.
literally a "city of the dead." Etruscans put a heavy emphasis on burial procedures, and as a result of that, elaborate tomb systems were developed by the Etruscans to house their dead.
A coffin, usually made of stone and often decorated.
A roundup Etruscan tomb that house sarcophagi. They were usually composed of underground chambers cut out of tufa stone. They were often huge and were constructed more like houses than tombs.
smooth (no ribs or fluting), have bases, and made of wood. These are similar to the Greek Doric Order.
They are on each side of the nave which is the center of the basilica (running parrallel to it). It consists of double stacked rows of columns/piers that seperate it from the main section or nave.
Means "double theater" in Latin. They were two semicircular Greek theaters put together to create a full circle around the central "stage."
Coming from the Latin words for water and to lead, it is an ingenious invention for carrying running water from natural reserves to urban areas.
Architecture of Space
Architecture with a focus on wide, vast spaces enclosed under such features as domes.
An effect on paintings that painters used to show depth and space by depicting objects closer to the viewer as sharper while objects in the distance are blurry.
the first true emperor of Rome. He took over rule of Rome after Julius Caesar was murdered. _____ defeated Cleopatra and Marc Antony to take control of Rome. During his reign, Rome experienced a period of peace called Pax Romana.
essentially a series of semicircular curves that are pulled out away from the center.
An building in the Forum used for official and law purposes. It is characterized by its long and narrow space. The inside is divided into a central nave and flanking aisles.
Lateral support of the walls below concrete, barrel vaults. Counteracted the downward and outward thrust of the heavy vaults.
An artistic representation of words or names representing Jesus Christ. The most famous, perhaps, are Chi-Rho (the first two letters of the Greek name for Christ--there is a picture of the Chi-Rho Christogram below) and IHS, the symbol for the Society of Jesus, which stands for Iesus Hominum Salvator (Jesus, Savior of Men.)
Describes the upper level of Roman architecture when groin vaults are employed to create a number of repeating arches made by the columns and roof.
Sunken panels used in Roman architecture, most famously in the Pantheon built under Emperor Hadrian. The point was to reduce the weight of the massive dome the made the "roof" of the Pantheon. In addition to decreasing the weight of the dome, they are also very decorative.
A style of column which combines Ionic volutes and Corinthian acanthus leaves.
A building material developed by the Romans that changed architecture forever. It was made of a mixture of a number of materials including sand, water, stones, and lime mortar. It was also cheaper than the expensive marble architecture of the Greeks. Most importantly, because functioned by placing it in wooden frames and letting it dry, it opened up possibilities for new architectural shapes like domes and spheres.
The issuer of the Edict of Milan--the imperial order requiring the tolerance of Roman Christians. He was the first Roman Emperor to convert to Christianity, and is credited with the establishment of Constantinople as the new cultural, religious, artistic, and administrative centre of the Empire (in the wake of the decline of the western half.) It is said that, before a key battle, he saw a vision in which an angel promised him victory if he painted a Christogram--Chi-Rho--upon the shields of his soldiers. He did so, and subsequently won.
The city founded by Constantine. It was a "new rome" founded on the sight of Byzantium. It became the capital of Rome.
This decoration is a relief that tells a story in which the same figure or person appears multiple times in different places in the story.
A concept used to describe emperors in the Early Roman Empire. After Julius Caesar was murdered, a civil war broke out. Afterwards, Julius Caesar was named a god, or divine emperor, and his adopted son, Augustus Octavian, became seen as a "son of god" himself. The emperors during this Pax Romana period were seen as divine, meaning that in art, they were often portrayed as perpetually youthful and perfect, unlike previous Roman emperors.
A rounded vault forming the roof of a building or structure, typically with a circular base.
Drum (of a Dome)
Not to be confused with the _____ that make up parts of columns, These were the cylindrical blocks used in the assembly of domes.
Edict of Milan
A letter signed by co-emperors Constantine and Licinius that ended the persecution of the Christians and founded a belief in religious tolerance.
Leader of the Roman Empire, the commander in chief!
A type of painting involving the use of hot wax and dye, often applied to wood or other durable canvas materials.
A column attached to a wall on one side.
A statue of a leader on horseback.
a locus of trade and politics. It is essentially a wide open space, surrounded by a colonnade, with a myriad of both secular as well as religious structures lining the periphery.
Four Styles of Painting
different artistic attitudes taken to interior decoration.
Painting on wet plaster, which becomes permanent when the wet plaster and paint dry.
Also known as cross vault. It is the intersection of two barrel vaults and the barrel vaults are each of the same dimensions. This type of vault can be built from stone blocks or concrete but concrete is more structurally sound. It allows for holes to let light through and prevention against fires.
It represents a type of art where the artists tries to make the viewer believe they are sharing space with the painting.
begins with the Severans after the decline of Pax Romana. It ends with the reign of Constantine. The periods are 193-337 CE.
refers to the fact that images of rulers or figures in art aren't necessarily realistic portraits, but rather attempts to convey the essence of the person in the way that the artist wishes
when all lines in a painting converge at a single point. This shows depth and distance. This style was used by many Roman painters.
The volcano that exploded in 79 CE, burying the coast along the Bay of Naples in ash. Specifically, it buried the town of Pompeii. The ash preserved much of the Roman towns in the area, and they are continuously explored by archaeologists today.
The central area of a Roman Basilica. It was marked by columns and aisles on either side.
The round opening at the top of a domed structure, designed to allow light to filter in readily.
Wealthy landowning class in ancient Rome.
This was a 200 year period in which Rome celebrated a time of stability, peace, and proserity brought by the end of the civil wars and the establishment of the Emperors. It began in 27 BCE when the Roman Senate declared Octavian the Emperor Augustus. It resulted in a period of unprecedented building of public works, art, and literature.
It is basically an engaged column which is flat and projecting from the wall instead of round. Seen decoratively on the top level of the Colosseum.
title for a lower class that consisted of small farmers, merchants, and freed slaves.
a Roman city near Naples that suffered an earthquake and then 17 years later was buried by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. This city is known for its public baths, clever city planners, open-air theatres, and wall paintings. It is also referred to as the "living city of the dead".
This period of Rome marked the first time a single government ruled by the people.
After Octavian, better known as Augustus, defeated Marc Antony and Queen Cleopatra, and acquired Egypt as another province of the ________, he began a new era of Rome. The early empire is best known for the period called Pax Romana or Roman peace.
One was building the cella walls out of concrete. Roman temples typically displayed their grandeur by covering the entire hillside with stone. Although temples combined Etruscan concepts like the basic plan, and Greek elements like Ionic columns, the psuedoperipteral temples were uniquely Roman.
A style of painting that appears in Second, Third, and Fourth Styles of paintings. They showed Roman painters applying effects to inanimate miniature objects. Common subject matters were fruit, objects in a cupboard, etc.
Paint made out of pigments in egg yolk.
meaning "rule by four," was the name ascribed to the governing body of Rome from 284-306 C.E. Rome, which had been plagued by decades of civil war, finally achieved some sense of stability when Diocletian decided to split his power as emperor between four rulers.
Third Century Crisis
Period of war and turmoil that started with the murder of Emperor Serverus Alexander and ended with the Emperor Diocletian. This time was filled with competing leaders and the breaking up of power of the vast land of the Empire.
These structures commemorated military victories but also domestic achievements like completed bridges and roads.
A style of portrait in which the sculpture is very realistic.