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What is the Reduced?


What is Oxidized ?


What is Light Reaction?

Light reactions are reactions which are initiated by light (also photoinduced reactions). Generally light energy is converted into chemical energy

_____ has a longer wavelength than _____.

Red ... green

Carbon fixation involves the addition of carbon dioxide to _____.


How many carbon dioxide molecules must be added to RuBP to make a single molecule of glucose?


In C3 plants the conservation of water promotes _____.


In C4 and CAM plants carbon dioxide is fixed in the _____ of mesophyll cells


The light reactions of photosynthesis use _____ and produce _____.

water ... NADPH

In C3 plants carbon dioxide fixation occurs in the


The conservation of water results in a reduction in the rate of


C4plants differ from C3 and CAM plants in that C4 plants

transfer fixed carbon dioxide to cells in which the Calvin cycle occurs

During respration in the eukaryotic cell reaction of glycolysis

the Cytosol

The source of phosphate for a phosphorylation cascade is_____


During photosynthesis in eukaryotic, a high proton concentration accumlates or is formed in ___________

the (inner ) thylakoid space

Why do the oxidation of organic compounds by molecular oxygen (O2) yeilds so much energy?

Oxygen atoms has a higher affinity for electrons than carbon atoms

The distance between the crests of waves is called


_______ plants stomata are open at night and closed during the day

In CAm

What wavelengths of light absorbed by pigments in the granum are mainly in which range

Blue- Violet and Red Orange

What happens during the Calvin cycle?

CO2 is reduced

During the reaction C6H12O6+6O2 =6CO2 +6H2O what is oxidized and _____ is the product of oxditsation?

Carbon Dioxide

During the reaction C6H12O6+6O2 =6CO2 +6H2O what product is reduction reaction?


During the reaction C6H12O6+6O2 =6CO2 +6H2O what is oxidized?


During the reaction C6H12O6+6O2 =6CO2 +6H2O what compound is by-product of the oxidation of glouse

Carbon Dioxide

During the reaction C6H12O6+6O2 =6CO2 +6H2O which compound is reduced as a result of reaction

Oxygen (O2)

During photosynthesis an electron transport chain is used to _______

transport electron from photosystem II to photosystem I

In the overall process of glycolysis and cell respiration,_____ is oxidizatiod and ____ is reduced.

glucouse and oxygen

Where do the electrons needed by photosystem II originate ?


In eukaryotic cell ____ is a a second messager that is produced as a response to am external signal such as a hormone?

Cyckio AMP

WHta is the name of the process in which glucose is converted to pyruvate with the production of ATP and NADH?


In a rosebush, chlorophyII is located in ___________.

Thylakoids which are in chloroplasts in the mesophyll cells of a leaf

In an expermient , mice were fed (C6H12O6) containing a small amount of radioaaction oxygen. The mice were closely monitored, and after a few mins. radioactive O2 atoms showed up in

Carbon Dioxide

The energy used to produce ATP in the light reaction of photosynthesis comes from ______.

movement of H+ through a membrane.

In photosynthesis what is the fate of the oxygen atoms present in CO2? They end up ____.

Sugar molecules and in water

Second messager tends to be water - soluble and small. This accounts for the ability to _________

Rapidly move throughout the cell by diffusion

Calvin cycle occurs in the ____


The wavelength of light most effective in driving photosynthesis are referred to as ______

an action spectrum

Cells of the GI tract and cells of the heart respond differently to epinephrine because____

there are diffrences in the proteins found in the two types of cells

What is the only pathway found in all organisms ?


The function of cellular respiration is to _______.

extract usable energy from gluocse

When chloroplast pigments absorb light ________.

their eletrons become excited.

Cells use diffrent signaling strategies to achieve diffrent goals. In hormaonal signaling ________.

specialized cells release hormone molecules into the circulatory system, permitting distant cells to be affected.

The binding of a signal molecule to a ligand gated ion channel ________

affect the membrane potential

Protein pores in teh plasma membrane that open or close in response to a chemiacal singnal allowing or blocking the flow of specific ions

Ligand- gated

What is Sporophyteis ?

replicates using spores ,diploid, which develop into gametophyte . Ferns are the best example and rose,and algae

What is Gametophyte ?

haploid generation, reduction division upto fertilization, lower forms and becomes reduced and dependent in higher plants,gametes which on fusion produce sporophyte

What is Alternation of generations?

Sexual reproduction involves the two alternating processes of meiosis and fertilization

The purpose of cell respiration

take unused energy from glucose

What is the sequences of the synthesis of ATP associated with eletron transport in mitochonidria


If a modified form of GTP that cannot be enzymatically converted GDP were add to a culture of cells the likely result would be

that the attachted G proteins would remain locked in the on postion transmitting signal even in the absence of signaling molecule

Sencond messagers tend to be water soluble and small. This accounts for their ability to:

Rapidly move throughout the cell by diffuision

Cholera develops when the bacterial toxin

prevents G-protein in activation which leads to the continous production of cAMP

The ATP synthese in a human cell obtains enery for makimg ATP directly from

the flow H+ across a membrane through the ATP synthase enzyme

Why is the cirtric acid cycle called a cycle

because the 4 carbon acid that accepts the acetyl CoA in the st step of the cycle is regented by the last step of the cycle

Where do most of NADA that delivers eletrons to the eletron transport chain comes from

The calvin cycle

Where do the eletrons needed by photosystems originate

WATER: the splitting of water provides the source of electron of photosystems 11

What happens during anaphase1

Homologs separte and migrate toward opposite poles

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