14.1) Relationship of lymphatic vessels to the cardiovascular system. Lymph capillaries collect tissue fluid, which is returned to the blood. The arrows indicate the direction of flow of the blood and lymph. / Question: To which large veins is lymph returned, and why is this return important?
Lymph is returned to the subclavian veins. Return of lymph to the blood is important to maintain normal blood volume and BP.
14.2) Dead-end lymph capillaries found in tissue spaces. Arrows indicate the movement of plasma, lymph, and tissue fluid. / Question: Just before water enters lymph capillaries, what name does it have?
Before becoming lymph, the is tissue fluid.
14-3.) System of lymph vessels and the major groups of lymph nodes and nodules. Lymph is returned to the blood in the right and left subclavian veins. / Question: Where are the major paired groups of lymph nodes located?
Major paired groups of lymph nodes are the cervical, axillary, and inguinal.
14.4) Lymph node. (A) Section through a lymph node, showing the flow of lymph. (B) Microscopic detail of bacteria being destroyed within the lymph node. / Question: What is the function of the plasma cells in a lymph node?
Plasma cells produce antibodies.
14-5.) Location of the thymus in a young child. / Question: Which blood cells mature in the thymus?
T cells (T lymphocytes) mature in the thymus.
14-6.) Innate immunity. (A) Barriers. (B) Defensive cells. (C) Chemical defenses. / Question: The three aspects of innate immunity are interconnected; describe two of these connections.
There are many connections. Lysozyme is a chemical, yet is found in some mucous membranes; defensins are chemicals produced by the epidermis. WBCs are part of each aspect: barriers, cells, and chemicals. Langerhans cells are part of the epidermis but are mobile. Basophils and mast cells are part of subcutaneous tissue and produce histamine and leukotrienes that contribute to inflammation.
14-7.) Adaptive immunity. (A) Cell-mediated immunity. (B) Antibody-mediated immunity. / Question: Adaptive immunity has memory; which cells provide this? What kind of memory is it?
Memory B cells and T cells provide memory; each cell remembers one specific foreign antigen.
14-8.) Antibodies. (A) Structure of one lgG molecule. Notice how the many disulfide bonds maintain the shape of the molecule. (B) Structure of the five classes of antibodies. (C) Antibody activity: Agglutination of bacteria and neutrlization of viruses or toxins. / Question: In part C, why does neutralization inactivate a bacterial toxin?
The attached antibodies change the shape of the toxin, and it cannot fit where it might produce harmful effects.