what occured as a result of the development of agriculature in societies that previously relied on hunting and gathering?
population density increased
What areas developed domesticated animals for food and clothing?
Europe, East Asia, South Asia, and East Africa
What is are essential characteristics of early civilizations?
Occupational specialization, cities that dominate or control smaller towns and villages, the existence of different classes in society, and a government that requires a bureaucracy for its operation
What area of Mesopotamian life deeply influenced the Hebrews and the Phoenicians?
A tradition of writing that enabled both worship and trade
The religious system developed by Zoroaster in Peri is characterized by what?
a collection of sacred writings, belief in the existence of a supreme diety, the assumption that the earth is an arena for the struggle between good and evil, the expectation that man enjoys free will
In order to maintain an orderly state, King Hammurabi of Babylon is believed to have developed a code of laws from what?
his personal ideas of legality
Whats the most likely cause for the decline of the Harappan society after 1990 BCE?
ecological degradation due to deforestation
According to Barber et.al. (1998), what are the characteristics of civilizations?
urbanism, class stratification, long-distance trade, agricultural dependence
The shedding of blood was critical to Mayan culture because
the bloodletting rituals were believed to provide the necessary rainfall for mayan agriculture
What effect did the growth of teh Chinese state have on the status of women in society?
Women became less powerful as political authority was no longer claimed through the female line of descent
Which of the following is a chief source of information about the Bantu history and migrations?
traditional oral histories
During the early Vedic era, what were social distinctions based on?
an individual's occupation and roles in society
What was an unintended result of the Persian monarchy's standardization of coinage?
It facilitated trade throughout the Persian empire
Why is the Axial Age (c. 800-c.200 BCE) during the classical era is viewed as significant by many scholars?
The foundations of major religions and philosophical systems emerged during this period across much of Africa-Eurasia
What's the best way to describe the basis of the ruler's authority in Zhou China?
The ruler was chosen and favored by heaven, and held power as long as he as a wise and principled guardian of his people.
Women were important contributors to the agricultural revolution because they were likely the gender who...
gathered edible plants and knew where the grains were
The continuing importance of written language in Chinese culture may be traced to its earliest use for...
communication with the ancestors
What's the the best explanation for why the concept of civilization is controversial as an organizing principle of world history?
The concept assumes that settled people are superior to nomads
The decline of the political authority of the Zhou dynasty in China from the 8th century BCE was due to what?
The growing independence of regional subordinates
Egypt achieved political unification when...
an Egyptian army brought most of the Nile river valley under the control of a single dynasty
The Sumerian and Hebrew accounts of the Flood differ in what way?
The reasons for the divine decision to wipe out mankind
What relationships are basic to Confucianism?
Ruler and subject, father and son, elder brother and younger brother, husband and wife, friend and friend
What're features that are a part of civilizations in Mesopotamia, Mesoamerica, and the Yellow River valley?
craft specialization, social stratification, architectural monuments, and development of water control systems
According to herodotus, the Greek victory over Xerxes the Great and the Persians was caused by...
the decision by the gods to punish the Persians for arrogance
What's the difference between the development of Mesoamerican and Afro-Eurasian societies?
Mesoamerican societies developed in places marked by regular and adequate rainfall
What's the function of Sumerian ziggurats?
Buildings whose temples and altars were dedicated to the city's principal diety
Which of the following best describes the message of the Upanishads?
The desires of this world could be rejected by a program of asceticism and meditation.
Indo-European pastorialists like the Hyksos and Aryans are associated with which development in the conduct of war?
The introduction of chariots in warfare
According to Confucius, the most important role of the scholar-gentry class was to
promote harmony through the administration of the state
Which of the following statements best describes the significance of the Bantu migration?
The migration resulted in the spread of Bantu agriculture, culture and language throughout much of Africa
The Vedic Age of Indian civilization gave rise to what important traditions?
Hinduism, Sanskrit as a writing, literary epics, and a caste system
What best describes the ideas of Greek philosophers like plato and aristotle?
They supported efforts to understand the world in a rational manner.
What did mystery religions of teh hellenistic era promise believers, which was not available through traditional religion or Greek philosophy?
The promise of a rewarding afterlife
What was a direct consequence of the military campaigns of Alexander the Great?
Greek cultural values and ideas spread from the eastern Mediterranean as far as India
What's the historical significance of the apostle Paul?
He transformed Christianity into a universal religion.
Before the Twelve Tables, what powers did the pater familias have over members of his household?
arrangement of marriages for his children, the purchase and sale of slaves, management of family properites, the punishment of members of his family
How did the Roman historian Tacitus view the political settlement enacted by Augustus?
Augustus acquired control of the Roman state with the consent of the elite
How did the Greek historian Polybius account for the Roman sucess in the acquisition of control over the Mediterranean?
Rome's political system promoted stability and a greater sense of civic duty