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What staple crop is associated with mesoamerica?


what occured as a result of the development of agriculature in societies that previously relied on hunting and gathering?

population density increased

What religion system is characterized by a sacred text and a strong missionary thrust?


What best describes patriarchial gender systems?

Women are inferiors and must be protected by men

What metal was the earliest to be sucesfully mined and fashioned into tools?


What areas developed domesticated animals for food and clothing?

Europe, East Asia, South Asia, and East Africa

What is are essential characteristics of early civilizations?

Occupational specialization, cities that dominate or control smaller towns and villages, the existence of different classes in society, and a government that requires a bureaucracy for its operation

What area of Mesopotamian life deeply influenced the Hebrews and the Phoenicians?

A tradition of writing that enabled both worship and trade

The religious system developed by Zoroaster in Peri is characterized by what?

a collection of sacred writings, belief in the existence of a supreme diety, the assumption that the earth is an arena for the struggle between good and evil, the expectation that man enjoys free will

In order to maintain an orderly state, King Hammurabi of Babylon is believed to have developed a code of laws from what?

his personal ideas of legality

Whats the most likely cause for the decline of the Harappan society after 1990 BCE?

ecological degradation due to deforestation

According to Barber (1998), what are the characteristics of civilizations?

urbanism, class stratification, long-distance trade, agricultural dependence

The shedding of blood was critical to Mayan culture because

the bloodletting rituals were believed to provide the necessary rainfall for mayan agriculture

What effect did the growth of teh Chinese state have on the status of women in society?

Women became less powerful as political authority was no longer claimed through the female line of descent

Which of the following is a chief source of information about the Bantu history and migrations?

traditional oral histories

During the early Vedic era, what were social distinctions based on?

an individual's occupation and roles in society

What's a satrap?

A term for the ruler of a Persian province.

What was an unintended result of the Persian monarchy's standardization of coinage?

It facilitated trade throughout the Persian empire

Why is the Axial Age (c. 800-c.200 BCE) during the classical era is viewed as significant by many scholars?

The foundations of major religions and philosophical systems emerged during this period across much of Africa-Eurasia

What development is Moses associated with?

The obligation to worship a single supreme diety.

What's the best way to describe the basis of the ruler's authority in Zhou China?

The ruler was chosen and favored by heaven, and held power as long as he as a wise and principled guardian of his people.

Women were important contributors to the agricultural revolution because they were likely the gender who...

gathered edible plants and knew where the grains were

The continuing importance of written language in Chinese culture may be traced to its earliest use for...

communication with the ancestors

What's the the best explanation for why the concept of civilization is controversial as an organizing principle of world history?

The concept assumes that settled people are superior to nomads

What central feature of HInduism did Buddhism reject?

The caste system

The decline of the political authority of the Zhou dynasty in China from the 8th century BCE was due to what?

The growing independence of regional subordinates

Egypt achieved political unification when...

an Egyptian army brought most of the Nile river valley under the control of a single dynasty

The Sumerian and Hebrew accounts of the Flood differ in what way?

The reasons for the divine decision to wipe out mankind

What relationships are basic to Confucianism?

Ruler and subject, father and son, elder brother and younger brother, husband and wife, friend and friend

What're features that are a part of civilizations in Mesopotamia, Mesoamerica, and the Yellow River valley?

craft specialization, social stratification, architectural monuments, and development of water control systems

According to herodotus, the Greek victory over Xerxes the Great and the Persians was caused by...

the decision by the gods to punish the Persians for arrogance

What's the difference between the development of Mesoamerican and Afro-Eurasian societies?

Mesoamerican societies developed in places marked by regular and adequate rainfall

What's the function of Sumerian ziggurats?

Buildings whose temples and altars were dedicated to the city's principal diety

Which of the following best describes the message of the Upanishads?

The desires of this world could be rejected by a program of asceticism and meditation.

Indo-European pastorialists like the Hyksos and Aryans are associated with which development in the conduct of war?

The introduction of chariots in warfare

According to Confucius, the most important role of the scholar-gentry class was to

promote harmony through the administration of the state

Which of the following statements best describes the significance of the Bantu migration?

The migration resulted in the spread of Bantu agriculture, culture and language throughout much of Africa

The Vedic Age of Indian civilization gave rise to what important traditions?

Hinduism, Sanskrit as a writing, literary epics, and a caste system

In Ancient China, tortoise shells were used for what purpose?

To communicate with the ancestors

What best describes the ideas of Greek philosophers like plato and aristotle?

They supported efforts to understand the world in a rational manner.

What public profession was open to women in Classical Greece?


What did mystery religions of teh hellenistic era promise believers, which was not available through traditional religion or Greek philosophy?

The promise of a rewarding afterlife

What was a direct consequence of the military campaigns of Alexander the Great?

Greek cultural values and ideas spread from the eastern Mediterranean as far as India

What's the concept behind legalism?

Fear of punishment ensures people's obedience to the state

What's the historical significance of the apostle Paul?

He transformed Christianity into a universal religion.

Before the Twelve Tables, what powers did the pater familias have over members of his household?

arrangement of marriages for his children, the purchase and sale of slaves, management of family properites, the punishment of members of his family

How did the Roman historian Tacitus view the political settlement enacted by Augustus?

Augustus acquired control of the Roman state with the consent of the elite

How did the Greek historian Polybius account for the Roman sucess in the acquisition of control over the Mediterranean?

Rome's political system promoted stability and a greater sense of civic duty

When did schools of thought like Confucianism and Daoism come into play in China?

during disunity and war among the various Chinese states

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