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Structure and Function of the Human Body
Terms in this set (134)
the study of body structure
the study of how the human body functions
levels of organization
chemicals, cell, tissue, organ (stomach), organ system(digestive), and the body as a whole
a control system based on information returning to a source
->medial<-, <-lateral->, superior, inferior, proximal, distal, anterior, posterior(dorsal)
planes of division
Frontal plane: section of posterior from anterior
Sagittal plane(midsagittal): separates the body from left to right
Transverse plane: section of superior from inferior
subdivisions: cranial containing the brain and the spinal containing the spinal cord
subdivisions: thoracic contains the heart, lungs, and the large blood vessels that join the heart abdominopelvic contains the stomach, most of the intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and the spleen
atomic # means
an element is equal to the # of protons that are present in the nucleus of its atom
when electrons are transferred from one atom to another
a negatively charged ion is
this bond involves not the exchange of electrons but a sharing of electrons between the atoms
a mixture formed when one substance dissolves in another is a
the dissolving substance in a body of water
type of nonuniform of heterogeneous mixture
encloses the cell contents, regulates what enters and leaves the cell
absorb materials into the cell
contains the chromosomes, the hereditary direct all cellular activities
site of many cellular activities, consists of cytosol and organelles
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
rough ER sorts protein and forms them into more complex compounds, smooth ER is involved with lipid synthesis
surrounds the organelles
convert energy from nutrients into ATP
makes compounds containing proteins, sorts and prepares these compounds for transport to other parts of the cell or out of the cell
digest substance within the cell
break down harmful substance
store material and move materials into or out of the cell in bulk
help separate the chromosomes during cell divison
move the cell or the fluids around the cell
move the fluid around the cell
moves the cell
building block of DNA and RNA
pores in the membrane that allow passage of specific substance, such as ions
shuttle substance, such as glucose, across the membrane
allow for attachment of substances, such as hormones, to the membrane
participate in reactions at the surface of the membrane
give structure to the membrane and attach cells to other cells
cell identity makers
proteins unique to a person's cell important in the immune system and in transplantation of tissue from one person to another
mature bone cell, maintains bone but does not produce new bone tissue
loose connective tissue also known as
nervous tissue is supported and protected "glue"
myocardium, involuntary muscle
produce secretions that are carried out the body
secrete not through ducts, but directly into surrounding tissue fluid
sweat glands, are coiled, tubelike structures located in the dermis and the subcutaneous tissue
are saclike in structure, and their oily secretion, sebum, lubricates the skin and hair and prevents drying
protein that thickens and protects the skin, makes up the hair and nails
function of the skin
a dark pigment that colors the skin and protects it from sunlight's harmful rays
a skin pigment derived from carrots and other orange and yellow vegetables
bone resorption- osteoclasts
are responsible for the process of resorption, which is the breakdown of bone tissue
bones in the shoulder
how to tell a male pelvis for a females?
the female has a wider pelvic(pubic arch) outlet
effects of aging
function of the muscular system
movement of the skeleton
maintenance of posture
generation of heat
one of the two contractile proteins in muscle cells, the other being actin helps contract the muscle is ATP
encircles the eyelid, closes eye
encircles the mouth, closes lips
along lateral neck, to mastoid process, flexes head, rotates head toward opposite side of muscle
chemical released from the ending of an axon that enables a nerve impulse to cross a synapse
what is a neurotransmitter
it ends in -ine
what fluid surrounds the spinal cord?
cerebral spinal fluid
cerebellum is also known as
frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital
magnetic resonance imaging
positron emission tomography
carries smell impulses from receptors in the nasal mucosa to the brain
carries visual impulse from the eye to the brain
gradual loss of sensation when sensory receptors are exposed to continuous stimulation
layer of the eyes
point of sharpest vision is
What muscles control the eye
extrinsic, intrinsic muscles
another name for eardrum is
larynx contains what?
cortisol, aldosterone, sex hormones
pituitary gland connects to the hypothalamus by what?
causes uterine contractions and triggers milk ejection from the breast
is the most abundant protein
a mature monocytes which are highly active in disposing of invaders and foreign material (bone marrow and lymphoid tissue
is the process that prevents blood loss from circulation when a blood vessel is ruptured by an injury
another word for clumping is?
what holds the valves in place which allows them to be opened and closed?
one way valves entrance valves are the atrioventricular valve and exits through the semilunar valve "half moon" four valves: right AV, left AV, pulmonary, and aortic.
what is the pacemaker of the heart?
layers of the heart
endocardium, myocardium, and pericardium
refers to a rapids heart rate
refers to slow heart rate
what makes up the superficial palmar arch?
is formed by the union of the radial and ulnar arteries in the hand
celiac trunk goes to?
stomach, spleen, and liver
120: systolic pressure
80: diastolic pressure
what type of human has the fastest heart rate?
lymphatic capillaries vs. blood capillaries
the gaps between endothelial cells in the lymphatic capillaries are larger then those of the blood capillaries
substance released from tissues during an inflammatory reaction
cytotoxic T cell
destroy certain abnormal cells directly
helper T cell
are essential to the immune response through the release of substance known as interleukins
regulatory T cell
suppress the immune response in order to prevent overactivity
memory T cell
remember an antigen and start a rapid response if that antigen is contracted agian
symptoms of inflammtion
nasopharynx: superior portion located behind the nasal cavity
oropharynx: the middle section, located posterior to the mouth
laryngopharynx: most inferior portion
contains a thin film of fluid that lubricates the membrane lungs and chest wall
if gases are in a mixture, the pressure of each individual gas in the mixture
refers to an abnormal increase in the depth and rate of breathing
is a decrease in the rate and depth of breathing
is a temporary cessation of breathing
is a subjective feeling of difficult or labored breathing
refers to a difficulty in breathing that is relieved by sitting in an upright position
is an excessive rate of breathing that may be normal
is a bluish color of the skin and mucous membrane caused by an insufficient amount of oxygen in the blood
means a lower than normal oxygen level in the tissue
refers to a lower than normal oxygen partial pressure in arterial blood
which portion of the large intestine empties into the rectum?
the average daily urine output is?
1 to 1.5 liters
an organ that produces gametes, a testis or ovary.
the period during which adolescents reach sexual maturity and become capable of reproduction
define seminiferous tubules
any of the coiled threadlike tubules that make up the bulk of the testis and are lined with a layer of epithelial cells from which the spermatozoa are produced.
function of testosterone
plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissues such as the testis and prostate as well as promoting secondary sexual characteristics such as increased muscle, bone mass, and the growth of body hair.
what is not in the vulva?
function of the scrotum
Control Temperature to Protect Sperm
Protect Testes and Guarantee Maturing of Sperm Before Discharge
most effective birth conrtol
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Structure and Function of the Human Body
Structure and Function of the Human body Chap. 4
Parts of the Brain, Parts of the brain.
Structures and Functions of the human body Chap 6
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