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T-F There are internal and external structures that make up the female reproductive system.


What three structures make up the vulva?

clitoris, urethral meatus, vaginal orifice

The two sets of tissue that cover the vulva are

inner set: labia minora & external set: labia majora and mons pubis

Which structure connects the internal and external structures of the female reproductive system?

the vagina

What is the sole purpose of the uterus?

house & nourish fetus

The inner layer of the uterus is the


Which layer of the uterus is the layer that holds it in place?

the outer layer, the perimetrium.

Three layers of uterus:

parametrium=connective tissue myometrium=smooth muscle. endometrium=hormonally responsive inner epithelial layer. Shed during menstruation.

The finger like projections that move in a wavelike pattern to draw the egg after its released are called .



finger or fringe like projections at the end of the fallopian tubes

What two hormones are released by the ovaries?

progesterone & estrogen


egg cell


organs that produce eggs

The four hormones that control mammary glands :

1. estrogen 2. progesterone 3. prolactin 4. oxytocin


a hormone that is essential to the menstrual cycle/contributes to development of secondary sex characteristics-breasts, a widened pelvis, increased body fat in the buttock, thigh and hip region, less facial hair and smoother skin then men/ regulates menstrual cycle and prepares the uterus for pregnancy by enriching and thickening the endometrium


a hormone which helps to regulate the menstrual cycle/ produced just before ovulation to enhance the possibility of becoming pregnant by increasing body temperature, creating more vaginal mucus, and makes the uterus muscles less likely to contract


hormone produced by the pituitary gland/ sometimes known as luteotropic hormone (LTH)/ "lactin" related to the Latin root for "milk"/key roles in the body is as a stimulus to produce milk


hormone composed of nine amino acids/ produced primarily in the hypothalamus/acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain/ produced in nerve cells/ plays a major role in female reproduction/ first it's released into the bloodstream as a result of increased uterine, cervical, and vaginal stimulation during childbirth/ promotes contractions of the smooth muscle tissue of the uterus during and after labor/breastfeeding also promotes the release of oxytocin.


beginning of the FIRST menstrual cycle


The shedding of the uterine lining (endometrium) when the body rids its self of a thickened endometrial wall.

The three phases of menstruation:

Follicular phase, Luteal phase, Menstrual phase

Follicular phase

proliferative phase because a hormone causes the lining of the uterus to grow, or proliferate, during this time: hormones mature a graafian follicle in an ovary, follicle stimulates growth of endometrium, follicle ripens, bulges out from ovary wall, enlarging until to bursts and lets ovum out in abdominal cavity

Luteal phase

secretory phase; progesterone causes growth of endometrium; without a pregnancy, endometrium breaks down, menstruation begins; with a pregnancy, progesterone is secreted until placenta is established

Menstrual phase:

discharge of necrotic endometrial tissue, mucus, and blood from endometrial engorgement

Which phase does ovulation occur?


If conception occurs which two hormones are continually released?

progesterone and HCG

If conception does not occur which phase will then start?

menstrual phase

What is menstrual discharge made up of?

necrotic endometrial tissue, mucus, and blood

What causes a woman to have cramps?

uterine contractions

What are types of contraceptive methods?

barrier, hormonal, IUD, permanent

List factors that your patient should be informed of before choosing a type of contraceptive

risks, side effects, cost, failure rate, convenience, benefits


A woman that has not had a period in 35 days to 6 months--abnormally light or infrequent menstruation


Absence of menses at least 6 months--absence or suppression of normal menstrual flow

factors that could cause amenorrhea

hormonal imbalance, thyroid disease


yeast infection

What are the symptoms of a yeast infection?

vulvovaginal itching; dry, bright red vaginal tissue; odorless, cottage cheese like vaginal discharge

Can a yeast infection be spread sexually?

A yeast infection not considered to be a sexually transmitted diseases (STD). It is possible for a candida (yeast) infection to be transmitted during sex.

Candida albicans

yeast infection


inflammation of the cervix, can occur after delivery from an infected laceration

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

inflammation of the female pelvic organs (especially the Fallopian tubes) caused by infection by any of several microorganisms (chiefly gonococci and chlamydia)

causes of PID

50-60% related to Chlamydia and gonorrhea infections. Other causes: IUD, pelvic surgery, infection during pregnancy and delivery, abortion procedures.

symptoms of PID

most common is abdominal pain, may also have fever, unusual vaginal discharge with foul odor, painful intercourse, painful urination, irregular menstrual bleeding


human papiloma virus - a virus that causes genital warts and can cause cervical cancer

fibroid tumors

benign, noncancerous, idiopathic tumors in the uterus

fibrocystic breast disease.

single or multiple fluid-filled cysts that are palpable in the breasts, and that fluctuate in size with the menstrual period, becoming tender just before menstruation


refers to the position of the uterus when the uterus is tipped slightly forward

uterine prolapse

condition in which the uterus slides from its normal position in the pelvic cavity and sags into the vagina

Maternal and fetal blood never mix.



the first fetal movements felt by the mother


descent of the uterus into the pelvic cavity that occurs late in pregnancy

gestational diabetes

develops during pregnancy; will have normal glucose levels within 6 weeks post partum; risk for developing type II diabetes in 5 to 10 years is increased; treated with nutritional therapy and then insulin therapy if that is not sufficient

gestational diabetes check

24-48 weeks gestation


thinning of the cervix prior to delivery


opening of cervix, enlarges to allow delivery of baby

ectopic pregnancy

a pregnancy outside of the womb, usually in a fallopian tube

fertility problems in women

causes include STD, congenital abnormalities of the reproductive organs, endometriosis

menopause occurs when

usually occurs between age 45 & 55 but could occur as early as 30 and as late as 60+.

symptoms of menopause

concentration problems, mood swings, migraines, hot flashes, night sweats, depression, fatigue, weight gain, nervousness, insomnia, osteoporosis

HRT hormone replacement therapy

pro: protects from osteoporosis, hip fractures, colon cancer
con: increases heart attacks-strokes, breast cancer, blood clots

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