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AGS Chap 1: The First Americans

AGS U.S. History Chapter 1: The First Americans pg. 3-23
STUDY
PLAY
Archaeologist
one who studies the remains of past human life. pg. 3
Culture
the values, attitudes and customes of a group. pg. 3
Theory
a best guess pg. 3
Ice Age
a period of of time when much of the Earth's water was frozen pg. 3
Beringia
land bridge that linked Asia and North America during the last ice age pg. 3
Caribou
a large deer that lives in the arctic regions. pg. 3
Nomad
people who do not live in one place pg. 3
Clovis Point
a finely flaked stone spearhead pg. 4
Glacier
a large body of ice pg. 4
Mesoamerica
The area of land that includes what is not Mexico and other countries south through Costa Rica pg. 6
Civilization
a high level of cultural development pg. 6
Cultivate
To grow crops pg. 6
Settlement
A place or region newly settled pg. 6
Hieroglyphic
A system of writing that uses picture like symbols pg. 6
Astronomy
The study of space and the planets pg. 6
Architect
a person skilled in designing buildings pg. 6
Military
Having to do with armed forces pg. 8
Canal
A waterway made by humans. pg. 8
Artisan
A skilled worker pg. 8
Irrigation
A system of watering crops that uses canals or ditches of water. pg. 10
Ritual
An action that takes place during a ceremony pg. 10
Mesa
A flat-topped height pg. 10
Kiva
A large under ground room used for ceremonies pg. 10
Burial
The act of burying the dead. pg. 11
Dwelling
A Home pg. 11
Religious
Relating to the belief in a higher being pg. 11
Reservoir
A large place used to store water pg. 12
Descendant
One who comes from a group of people. pg. 12
Kachina
The spirit of an ancestor. pg. 12
Tobacco
A plant that some people smoke or chew. pg. 14
Meadowcroft Rock Shelter
Contains the earliest traces of human life
Located near Pittsburg, Pennsylvania
Olmecs
Established between 1200BC and AD 600 in Mexico
Carved jade and stone
Hieroglyphics
Mayans
Established in AD 250 in Belize
Masters of Astronomym Arithmetic, Architecture, Artists, Advanced form of writing
Toltecs
Established in AD 900 in the Mexican highlands
Built Temples in the city of Tula
Aztecs
Established in AD 1200
Ruled much of Mexico from their main city of Tenochititlan
Strong Military and Government
Built Roads, Canals, Bridges and Buildings
Incas
Established in AD 1200 in southern Peru
Studied Astronomy
Strong Builders, Lawmakers and Warriors
Hohokam
Established in 300BC
Weaved Cotton goods
Ruled villages by controlling canals
Mogollon
Established in 200BC
Built small villages of 20 houses on bluffs, mesas and other high ground
Chaco Canyon Anasazi
Established in AD 100
Called Cliff Dwellers
Mesa Verde Anasazi
Lived on the sides of high Mesas in the southwest.
Kayenta Anasazi
Lived in northeastern Arizona
Descendents of the Pueblos
Adena
Built burial mounds in the Ohio River Valley to honor their dead.
Hopewell
Decendents of the Adena
Serpent Mound is an example of a Hopewell Mound
Traded with settlements east of the Mississippi River
Mississippians
Lived in the Mississippi River Valley
Used plants for food
Built a large settlement called Moundville in Alabama in 1050.
Built a large mound at Cahokia, a major trade center of the Mississippi River
Decendents include the Cherokees who celebrate the Green Corn Ceremony
Plains Indians
Called Nomadic People but also lived in villages
The Hidatsa and Mandan tribes of North Dakota farmed, fished and hunted.
Pacific Northwest People
Civilizations began about AD 400
Depended on the Sea for food and trade
Inuit
lived north of the Pacific Northwest civilizations
Called Eskimos