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HL Topic 8: Energy
Terms in this set (26)
Outline two types of energy.
Kinetic energy is the energy associated with a moving object. Potential energy is the energy in an object due to its position or the arrangement of its parts.
Describe how development of machines based on flowing water led to a revolution in production.
The water wheel enabled the harnessing of energy for production. However, the water wheel had a fixed location next to a fast-flowing river and so lacked flexibility.
Describe how the invention of the steam engine and the use of steam as the basis for the operation of machines led to a large increase in scale of production based on coal.
Steam power is more efficient than water power, but still only 30% of the energy produced is converted. The advantage of steam power is that it is more movable and therefore flexible. Consider the impact of the steam engine on the mechanisation of the cotton industry.
Explain how the development of electricity led to a technological revolution and an increased volume of production.
Faraday's discovery of electromagnetic induction and the invention of the dynamo allowed the energy from coal or fast-flowing water to be converted into electricity. As a result, the electricity industry was established, with a sophisticated infrastructure enabling a new generation of electrical machines and electrical products. Factory production and the development of assembly-line arrangements enabled the development of a vast range of cheaper products.
Identify uses for the electric motor in industrial production.
Consider the application of rotary motion in drills, saws, lathes and belt systems.
Explain how the production and distribution of electricity led to large-scale energy usage, security of supply and the geographical spread of production away from the source of energy supplies.
The electrical distribution network and grid system allowed industry to move away from the source of the fuel supply.
Explain how the development of localised, portable sources of electrical energy in the form of batteries changed the nature of energy usage and the development of new types of products.
Consider portable radios, mobile phones, and other portable electrical and electronic products.
List the main forms of non-renewable energy sources.
Coal, oil, timber and gas.
Discuss the efficiency of conversion of fossil fuels into electrical energy.
Fossil fuel burning is an extremely inefficient method of energy conversion. Coal is least efficient (about 30%), then oil (about 35%) and gas (about 40%). Waste energy is dissipated into the atmosphere or water (lake, sea or river).
Outline how modern industrial societies have become dependent on non-renewable fossil fuels as the major sources of energy supply and electricity production.
There are cheap and plentiful supplies for electricity production and other energy needs. However, the depletion of supplies of coal, oil and gas challenges continuity of supply in the longer term.
Outline the main pollutants produced from the large-scale burning of fossil fuels worldwide.
Sulphur emissions cause acid rain; CO2, although not strictly a pollutant, contributes to the enhanced greenhouse effect.
Describe the main effect of carbon dioxide emissions from the large-scale burning of fossil fuels.
Enhanced greenhouse effect leads to higher mean global temperatures, sea-level rise and general climate changes.
Discuss the use of technologies to make energy conversion from fossil fuels more efficient and cleaner.
Consider clean coal technology.
Discuss two approaches to reducing the enhanced greenhouse effect based on international agreements to reduce emissions of CO2 and the promotion of clean technologies.
Consider the Kyoto Protocol, which uses economic mechanisms, and the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate (APPCDC), which looks at technology solutions.
List the main forms of renewable energy sources.
Wind, solar, tidal, wave, hydroelectric and biomass.
Explain why there is increasing pressure to use renewable energy sources.
Consider higher cost of oil, political instability, security of supply, greenhouse effect leading to climate change, and other pollution.
Discuss the limitations of the use of renewable energy resources as alternatives for fossil fuels.
Limitations include high cost, unreliable supply and low energy density.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power.
Very low CO2 emissions, high energy density versus safety issues, high cost of decommissioning, possible radioactive contamination, waste product storage problems, and link with nuclear weapons.
Discuss the role of energy conservation in energy policy.
Reduced usage by sustainable development policies, for example, sustainable transport systems and building systems.
Outline new sources of energy.
Discuss the contribution of biomass as a renewable energy resource.
Can replace petrol in the internal combustion engine and be used as a biomass fuel.
Describe how solar power can be harnessed for use in domestic products.
Consider active solar collection and various arrangements of photovoltaic cells (PVs), for example, small individual cells on portable equipment, use of PVs in sustainable building design for hybrid systems, incorporation of PVs into roof design to enhance the sustainability of buildings and also doubling as shelter over car parking areas.
Identify the advantages and disadvantages of solar power.
Consider set-up costs, running costs and maintenance, and continuity of supply.
Discuss the barriers to transition from individual cars to mass public transport systems.
Consider convenience, flexibility, systems integration, for example, park-and-ride systems.
Identify the advantages and disadvantages of small-scale and large-scale wind energy generating plants.
Consider small-scale wind energy generating systems, for example, for isolated houses, and large-scale wind energy generating systems for communities and feeding into the national grid.
Discuss the issues associated with the siting of large wind farms.
Consider impacts on the environment; noise and visual pollution; community lobbying and "not in my back yard" (NIMBY); who pays for the developments; onshore and offshore developments.
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