AP Psych Final

unconscious mind
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Terms in this set (115)
PersonaJung's idea that the personality we present to others is the part of conscious egoShadowJungs idea of the animalistic nature within us, the instinctive, irrational dark side of our personality.Integrated ShadowJungs idea that bringing the unconscious shadow into conciousnessMaslowHierarchy of needs: our psychological needs have to be satisfied once safety needs then psychological needs.Carl Rogersunconditional positive regard: having a caring, accepting, non-judge mental attitude would develop self-awareness and self-acceptance.Behaviorist Perspectiveview that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processesIndividualismIdentity comes from oneself, prioritizing ones's own goals and self attributes over the group.Where is individualism found?North America, Western Europe, and Australia.Collectivismidentity comes from the group, prioritizing the needs of the groupWhere is collectivism found?Asia (China), Africa, Latin AmericaScientific MethodA series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.What are the three research methods?descriptive, correlational, experimentaldescriptive researchto observe and record behaviorcorrelational researchto detect naturally occurring relationships; to assess how well one variable predicts anotherexperimental researchto explore cause and effectCorrelationA measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.experimentA research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental processdouble-blind experiementWhere both research participants and research staff don't know that participants have recieved the treatmentplacebo effectwhen the results of an experiment are simply caused by expectation alone.How does ethics affect psycology?As psychologists value the influence of their choice research topics, their theories, observations, and their labels for behavior, and professional advice.Neurotransmitterschemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neuronsDopamineinfluences movement, learning, attention, and emotionWhat does an oversupply of dopamine cause?schizophreniaWhat does an undersupply of dopamine cause?Parkinson's diseaseWhen is dopamine typically released?In anticipation of a rewardSerotoninAffects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal linked to self esteemWhat does an undersupply of serotonin cause?depressionnervous systemthe body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systemscentral nervous systemconsists of the brain and spinal cordperipheral nervous systemthe sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the bodynervesbundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organsendoctrine systemthe body's slow chemical communication system: set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstreamhormoneschemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissuespituatary glandThe most important endocrine gland. Regulates and controls the other endocrine glands.reticular formationattention center of the braincorpus callosumA thick band of axons that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and acts as a communication link between them. (cut in cases of severe epilepsy)cingulate cortexprimary cortical component of the limbic system, involved in emotional and cognitive processing (DECISION MAKING)limbic systemmiddle of the forebrain, controls emotion and drivecortexoutermost covering of the brain consisting of densely packed neurons, responsible for higher thought processes and interpretation of sensory inputAmygdalatwo lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system. Controls emotions to memories, motivation, fight or flight.Ponssleep and arousalCerebellumA large structure of the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills.Hypothalamusbrain region controlling the pituitary glandThalamusRelays information to sensory receptors to proper parts of the brain to be processedHippocampusA neural center located in the limbic system that helps process short term memory to long termbasal gangliaa set of subcortical structures that directs intentional movementsmidbrainvisual and auditory reflexes and processingMedullacontrols heartbeat and breathing, and swallowing ( located at top of spinal cord)occipital lobevisual processingparietal lobeSense of touch, temperature, and body positionfrontal loberegulates emotion, motor functioning, planning, and higher reasoningtemporal lobehearing, memoryPhases of prenatal developmentZygote, Germinal, Embryonic, FetalZygoteUnion of the egg and the sperm, fertilized egg. 50% chance of being male or femaleGerminal2 week period following the zygote (conception) period. Placenta and umbilical cord growsEmbryonicFrom 2 weeks after conception to 9 weeks. Attaches to wall of uterus, as brain, spinal cord, and heart starts to form.FetalFrom 9 weeks to 9 months. Organs continue to develop. Massive period of growth and development.2nd trimesterWeight gain, strong heartbeat, and bigger limbs3rd trimesterFinal weeks, Rapid growth and weight gain of fetusHearingDevelops around week 18 and response to sound at week 25Does the baby prefer a certain sound or language?Yes, the baby prefers it's mothers sound and her native language.TetrogensAny chemical and viruses that could harm the baby. Two being Fetal Alcohol (FAS) syndrome, and from smoking (SID)What are the 4 parenting styles?authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, uninvolvedAuthoritarianLots of rules, very strict parentingAuthoritaveparents combine warmth with positive kinds of strictness. Set of rules with consequences.Permissiveparents submit to their children's desires. they make few demands and use little punishmentUninvolvedNo rules, extreme independence for childrenWhat are the 4 attachment styles?secure, avoidant, ambivalent, disorganizedsecure attachmentuneasy when mother leaves, happy when she comes backavoidant attachmentreached little to mom when leaving and returningambivalent attachmentuneasy when mom returns, embraces mom but pushes her away.disorganized attachmentshowed confusion and fears uncertain on which situation should be embracedPiaget: Schemasa concept or framework that organizes and interprets information by exploring curiosityVygotsky: ScaffoldingChildren develop cognitively when the process of problem solving is demonstrated.zone of proximal developmentthe difference in what a child can do alone vs with the help of a teacher (more growth with scaffolding)classical conditioningtype of learning that is linked to two or more stimuli before the response. Learning applied to involuntary behavior. Pavlov's experiment with the bell and the dog food.operant conditioningA type of learning when organisms associate their own actions with consequences after response. Learning applied to voluntary behavior.positive reinforcementIn operant conditioning, anything that increases the likelihood of a behavior by following it with a desirable event or state.negative reinforcementin operant conditioning, removing something unpleasant in order to elicit more of a particular behaviorpunishmentan event that decreases the behavior that it followspositive punishmentaddition of something unpleasantnegative punishmentavoidance, removal of desired outcome.observational learningLearning through observing othersmodeling/observational learningthe process of observing and imitating a specific behaviorsleep stagesthe distinct cycles of sleep that we go through every 90 minutes.Non-REM Stage 1Light sleep lasting roughly 10-15 minutes (theta waves). Slowed breathing, irregular brain waves.NREM-2 sleep stageAbout 20 minutes, characterized by sleep spindlesNREM 3 (deep sleep)Lasts about 30 minutes, very deep sleep. Emits slow delta waves.Delta wavesthe large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleepHow much percent do we on average spend in REM?20-25%Sleep Stages Overview1. (NREM-1) 2.(NREM-2) 3. (NREM-3) 4. (NREM-2) 5. REMinsomniarecurring problems in falling or staying asleepnarcolepsyA sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.sleep apneaa sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakeningsnight terrorsa sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom rememberedsleepwalking/talkingNREM-3 disorder found mainly in childrenBenefits of sleep-Better health -Less risked immune system -Lower risk of heart problems -Increase of brain function/activity -Improved moodDepressantsreduce neural activity and lower processing speed and heart rateex of depressantsalcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepinesStimulantsexcite central nervous system, heart rate, and alertness. Speed up body functiondsexamples of stimulantscaffeine, cocaine, amphetamines and nicotineHallucinogensdistorted perceptions, heightened sensations, absence of sensory input.ex of hallucinogensLSD, marijuanaOpiatesDecreased heart rate, pain killersex of opiatesopium, morphine, heroin