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Cradle cap

Increased sebaceous gland activity during infancy

Lower central incisors

first primary teeth to erupt

An infant should have good head control by how many months?


Normal palpation of a infants head at 12 months?

able to palpate pulsations at the anterior fontanelle

Common findings in infants:

-epidermis and dermis are loosely bound (subject to friction rubs and trauma)
-melanin levels are low at birth (subject to sunburn)
-skin is more permeable (risk of fluid loss)

Using an otoscope with an infant pull the ear...

down and back


Flattening or asymmetry of the head (typically due to parents having the child sleep on their back too much)

Caput Succedaneum

localized soft area of the scalp resulting from long difficlt labir or vacuum extraction; overrides suture lines


head tilt due to shortening or contraction of one sternomastoid muscle

tinea capitus

ringworm of the scalp (fungus)

cafe au lait spot

This is a skin lesion that is the color of coffee with milk—a distinctive light brown pigment having a macular form. Pronounced "kahFAY o LAY."

mongolian spot

a benign, bluish black macule, between 2 and 8 cm, occurring over the sacrum and on the buttocks of some newborns. It is especially common in African Americans, Native Americans, southern Europeans, and Asian Americans and usually disappears during early childhood.


normal head circumference at birth; usually 35 cm (14 in)
sagittal and coronal sutures may be palpable but non-tender


Condition in which the eyeballs protrude, such as in Grave's disease. This is generally caused by an over production of thyroid hormone.

Pulmonary crackles are indicative of alveolar collapse or fluid



farsightedness resulting from a reduced ability to focus caused by loss of elasticity of the crystalline lens with old age


dilation of the pupil, with an adrenergic response


constriction of the pupil, as a result of a cholinergic response


gradual loss of hearing (due to nerve degeneration) that occurs as the body ages


abnormally enlarged thyroid gland


ABC... then pain

Normal aging eye variations

gray-white circles in the iris bilaterally

Normal aging ear variations

cerumen accumulation
coarse and stiff otic cilia
cranial nerve degeneration
increased auditory reaction time


inflammation of the pharynx
-inflamed tonsils
-obstructed Eustachian tubes
-cervical lymphadenopathy

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