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[World History] Chapter 14
Terms in this set (61)
Complete control over someone or something
Belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god.
A group of middle-class men that spied on the nobles so that they couldn't take tax money and find other ways to possibly make themselves more powerful than the King. Ultimately the intendents purpose was to check the power of the nobles.
Revolts that Mazarin, Anne, and the child-king faced that forced them to flee Paris. These revolts came from French subjects' objections to high taxes and increasing royal power. This is significant because it shows how bad they were ruling.
Assistant to the Governor; serves the same roles as the Vice-President
Members of the Prussian landed aristocracy, a class formerly associated with political reaction and militarism.
Title of the ruler of Russia. Taken from the word Caesar, which means emperor.
A group consisting of puritans, country land owners, and town based manufacturers, led by Oliver Cromwell; fought against the Cavaliers during the English civil war.
Charles's royalist supporters which included Anglicans, Roman Catholics, nobles, and other opponents of Parliament's reforms
A system of government, as in Britain, in which the cabinet (rather than the prime minister) exercises responsibility for formulating policy and directing both the government and the executive branch. In the UK, cabinet government has been undermined as a check on the power of the prime minister.
Balance of power
A strategy to maintain an equilibrium, in which weak countries join together to match or exceed the power of a stronger country. It was one of the guiding principles of the Congress of Vienna.
Status quo ante bellum
Terms of the Treaty of Ghent, War of 1812 ends in an armistice, but US sees it self as a winner and War brings a new sense of national pride.
Major reversal of diplomatic alliances. Great Britain reversed its alliance with Austria and forged a relationship with Prussia, causing France to join with Austria and Russia to check Prussian power.
A European Royal family that is most known for its rule of France from the 16th through the 18th centuries.
First Bourbon king of France, ruled 1589-1610, and converted to Catholicism from Calvinism to bring peace after the French Civil War. He passed the Edict of Nantes and was also assassinated in 1610.
French king who succeeded Henry IV when he was nine years old; his reign was dominated by the influence by his mother and regent Marie de Medici, Cardinal Richelieu, and wealthy nobles.
Adviser to Louis XIII. He encouraged the king to adopt absolutist policies. Laid the foundations for the political acendancy of the French monarchy.
Thirty Years' War (1618 - 48)
War fought between European countries over various difrences in political beliefs, mainly in Germany where the countrie was heavily divided.
Swedish Lutheran who won victories for the German Protestants in the Thirty Years War and lost his life in one of the battles
"the Sun King;" considered to be the model of absolute monarchs; he controlled all aspects of government, and demonstrated his power and wealth with his palace at Versailles; engaged in efforts to increase his power by taking attacking Huguenots and engaging in wars to acquire more territory and power
Became a cardinal in 1641, succeeded Richelieu and dominated the power in French government. Died in 1661.
An economic advisor to Louis XIV; he supported mercantilism and tried to make France economically self-sufficient. Brought prosperity to France.
After making slow advances against non-Catholics, Louis XIV evicted the Edict of Nantes in this year, once Richelieu was dead for he abhorred the idea. By doing so, most Protestants left France for Holland, Germany, and America, and it was a great blow to France's economy, before which the greatest in all of Europe. After this occurred, while it was downplayed at the end of his reign, Protestants in France lived lives equal to those of CAtholics in Ireland: utterly suppressed and treated as subhuman
A palace built for Louis XIV near the town of Versailles, southwest of Paris. It was built around a chateau belonging to Louis XIII, which was transformed by additions in the grand French classical style
King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Son of Frederick I who became king of Prussia, doubled the size of Prussian Army; made it most efficient force in Europe
"Frederick The Great"-1712-1786;King of Prussia, aggressive in foreign affairs. Used military to increase power. Encouraged religious tolerance and legal reform.
Frederick William I
"The Soldiers' King". Eliminated last traces of estates and local government. Established Prussian absolutism, made Prussia a military state. Built good bureaucracy to administer the country and foster economic development. Made great army through lifelong conscription in the reserves.
Frederick II ("the Great")
This man was the ruler of Prussia in the War of Austrian Succession and Seven Years' War. He was very militaristic and a genius in battle, but did reform laws and grant religious toleration.
German royal family who ruled Brandenburg from 1415 and later extended their control to Prussia (1525). Under Frederick I (r. 1701-1713) the family's possessions were unified as the kingdom of Prussia.
Austrian rulers of the Holy Roman empire and the Netherlands
This was the ruler of the Habsburgs that controlled the Catholic Church closely, granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, and abolished serfdom
"The Terrible." Formed the Oprichnina: The scattered boyar's lands placed under his direct control. On that, he placed the Oprichniki, which were a secret police made up of his own loyal people who terrorized the country. Increased trade and contacts with western Europe, imported artistans and doctors from Germany and England. Introduced the first printing press. Expanded Russian borders 50 sq. miles per day. Claimed Kazan. He became the terrible when his wife died. Executed hundreds of people. Was extremely cruel.
Michael Romanov was elected the new hereditary tsar in 1613 of Russia. Michael's election was a real restoration, and his reign saw the gradual reestablishment of tsarist autocracy. The Romanovs brought about total enserfment of the people, while the military obligations on the nobility were relaxed considerably. Nobility gained more exemptions from the military service, while the peasants were further ground down. (581)
Peter I ("the Great")
Tsar from 1689 to 1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; sought to change selected aspects of the economy and culture through imitation of western European models.
Catherine II ("the Great")
Russian Czar from 1762-1796. Was an Enlightened Absolutist, but came to power when spouse was murdered. This Czar supressed the serfs and gave power to the aristocracy. Her boyfriends would become prime ministers. Expanded mostly West and South, and Westernized in literature, philosophy, and art.
First of the Stuart family. Elizabeth puts him into power. He is her nephew, King of Scotland. Son of Mary Queen of Scots. The English Parliament dislikes him because they look down on Scottish people and they think he is Catholic. He is a firm believer in Divine Right and prerogative rights.
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
KJV of the Bible is published, it becomes the most widely available Protestant version of the Bible in English, it is the most accurate translation of the Bible in the English language to this day
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649
Petition of Right
Document prepared by Parliament and signed by King Charles I of England in 1628; challenged the idea of the divine right of kings and declared that even the monarch was subject to the laws of the land
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
A country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power.
King of England and Scotland and Ireland during the Restoration (1630-1685)
The year that the commonwealth failed and the Monarchy was reinstated with Charles 2 being brought out of exile and crowned king. The monarchy was not the same though (was a constitutional monarch). There was a constitution, Parliament had more power, and absolute power by the monarch was no longer possible.
Habeas Corpus Act
In England, an act that guaranteed that someone accused of a crime had the right to appear in court to determine if the accused should be held or released.
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1685-1688). The last Stuart king to rule both England and Scotland, he was overthrown by his son-in-law William of Orange
Glorious Revolution (1688)
Bloodless overthrow of King James II of England. Caused by the unpopularity of his religious tolerance policies in Parliament. King James II was the last Roman Catholic to rule England, being replaced by the Dutch William III and Mary II.
William and Marry
The successors following King James II. They were elected by parliament because James had Catholic background and openly practiced it. In their minds, this could eventually have led to another revolt or Civil War, so William and Mary were chosen to take the thrown.
Bill of Rights (1689)
Drawn up by Parliament and presented to King William II and Queen Mary, it listed certain rights of the British people. It also limited the king's powers in taxing and prohibitted the maintenance of a standing army in peacetime.
Act of Settlement
An Act by Westminister (Parliment) that removed the heirs of James II from the line of Succession. Designed also to ensure the absence of the Holy Mother Church from the Crown.
War of the Spanish Succession
(1701-1713) War fought over the Spanish throne; Louis XIV wanted it for his son and fought a war against the Dutch, English, and the Holy Roman Empire to gain the throne for France. , (1701-1713) war fought over the Spanish throne; Louis XIV wanted it for his son and fought a war against the Dutch, English, and the Holy Roman Empire to gain the throne for France. Ended at Utrecht in 1713; The big winner in the war was Great Britain.
An alliance between the English, Dutch, Austrians, and Prussians against the expansionist wars of Louis XIV.
Treaty of Utrecht (1713)
Settled the War of the Spanish Succession by recognizing Philip, duke of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV of France, as Philip V, king of Spain, under the condition that the Spanish and French kingdoms would not be united.
War of the Austrian Succession
(1740) War fought between Prussia, Britian, France, and Russia over the throne of Austria. The French and Austrians should have been overpowering, but the strong Prussian army allied with the strong British navy emerged victorious, with the British gaining many French colonies
This was the act passed by Charles VI that stated that Hapsburg possessions were never to be divided, in order to allow his daughter to be ruler
This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
This was the treaty that ended the War of Austrian Succession by giving the Prussians land, taking land away from Maria Theresa, but still allowing her to rule
Seven Years' War
Known in America as French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.
William Pitt the Elder
As secretary of state in charge of the Seven Years' War, this British official sent tons of troops to confront the French in Canada. Proved instrumental in helping Great Britain emerge as a world power from the war.
Treaty of Paris (1763)
Treaty between Britain, France, and Spain, which ended the Seven Years War (and the French and Indian War). France lost Canada, the land east of the Mississippi, some Caribbean islands and India to Britain. France also gave New Orleans and the land west of the Mississippi to Spain, to compensate it for ceeding Florida to the British.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
BJU World History Chapter 17
BJU World History Chapter 23
Chapter 16 Review
World History chap 17
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