APES - S1 Final Study Set

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fossil fuels
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Terms in this set (161)
background extinction rateThe average rate at which species become extinct over the long termgreenhouse gasesGases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, water vapor, and ozone in the atmosphere which are involved in the greenhouse effect.accuracyA description of how close a measurement is to the true value of the quantity measured.precisiona measure of how close a series of measurements are to one anotheranthropogenicderived from human activitiesmoleculeA group of atoms bonded togethercompoundA substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bondsatomic numberthe number of protons in the nucleus of an atommass numberthe sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atomic nucleusisotopesAtoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons4 properties of watercohesive behavior, ability to moderate temperature, expansion upon freezing, versatility as a solventinductive reasoningA type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific observations.deductive reasoningreasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case (The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun will rise on Tuesday morning.)independent variableThe experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.dependent variableThe outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.control groupIn an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.terminal lakewater flows in but not outhalf-lifelength of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decayAcidA substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.BaseA substance that decreases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution.Law of Conservation of MatterMatter is not created nor destroyed in any chemical or physical changeWhat makes a compound organic?Contains carbon4 biological moleculescarbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acidsCarbohydratesthe starches and sugars present in foods; broken down to glucose to provide energy (C, H, O2)ProteinsNutrients the body uses to build and maintain its cells and tissues (enzymes)Nucleic AcidsDNA and RNALipidsfats, waxes, and steroidsPower vs. EnergyEnergy is the ability to do work, and power is how fast that work gets doneTemperatureA measure of the average energy of motion of the particles of a substance.first law of thermodynamicsEnergy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.second law of thermodynamicsEvery energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe.EntropyA measure of disorder or randomness.Third Law of ThermodynamicsNo system can reach absolute zeroOpen SystemA system in which matter can enter from or escape to the surroundings.Closed SystemA system in which no matter is allowed to enter or leavePositive feedback loopCauses a system to change further in the same direction.Negative feedback loopA feedback loop that causes a system to change in the opposite direction from which it is movingChemical equation for photosynthesis6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2Chemical Equation for Cellular RespirationC6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPHeterotrophorganism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumerAutotrophAn organism that makes its own foodLevels of the trophic pyramidproducers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumersdetritivoreorganism that feeds on plant and animal remains and other dead matterdecomposerAn organism that breaks down wastes and dead organismswhat do the arrows represent in a food chain?flow of energyNPP(Net Primary Productivity): the energy captured by producers in an ecosystem minus the energy producers respireGPPThe total amount of solar energy that producers in an ecosystem capture via photosynthesis over a given amount of timeNPP and GPP equationNPP=GPP-respirationwhich terrestrial ecosystems are the most productive?tropical rainforests and tropical seasonal rainforestswhich three ecosystems are the least productive?tundra, desert scrub, and extreme desertThe Hydrolic Cycle:the continuous circulation of water between the atmosphere, oceans, and earth Evaporation, Condensation, Precipitation, Transpiration, and RunoffThe Carbon CycleThe organic circulation of carbon from the atmosphere into organisms and back again Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration, Deforestation, Burning Fossil Fuels, Ocean AcidificationThe Nitrogen CycleThe transfer of nitrogen from the atmosphere to the soil, to living organisms, and back to the atmosphere Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrification, Assimilation, Ammonification, Denitrificationnitrogen fixationProcess of converting nitrogen gas into ammonianitrificationammonia is converted to nitrate ions (NO3-) and nitrite ionsassimilationwhen nitrogen assimilates into plantsammonificationdecomposers convert organic waste into ammoniadentrificationConversion of nitrates into nitrogen gasphosphorus cycleThe movement of phosphorus atoms from rocks through the biosphere and hydrosphere and back to rockssulfur cycleThe movement of sulfur around the biosphereresistancea measure of how much a disturbance can affect flows of energy and matter in an ecosystemresiliencerate at which ecosystem returns to its original stateClimatethe average weather that occurs in a given region over a long period of timeWeatherthe short-term conditions of the atmosphere in a local area, which include temperature, humidity, clouds, precipitation, and wind speedLayers of Earth in orderTroposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, and ExosphereTrophosphere- layer of the atmosphere closest to earth - where air is the densest - layer where the most Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Water Vapor is - Where weather occurs - Air Temperature is highestStratosphere- Layer of the atmosphere above troposphere - Less dense than troposphere - Ozone layer is hereMesosphere, Thermosphere, and Exosphere- pressure and density continues to decrease - the thermosphere blocks harmful radiations and crated charged gas molecules that when struck with solar energy, begin to glow (creating Aurora Borealis and the Southern Lights)albedoAbility of a surface to reflect lightCauses of Uneven Warming Patterns- The angle of the Sun's ray strike (equator receives perpendicular, and mid-latitude and polar regions have oblique angles) - Variation in the amount of surface ray distribution (equator rays are distributed over a smaller surface area, making them more concentrated and making the equator warmer) - Albedo: the amount of light that reflects off of surfaces like snow, so some areas reflect more solar energy than othersWhat causes Earth's seasonsTilt of the earth's axis as the earth travels around the sun Northern Hemisphere tilted toward sun = SummerWhat causes air currents?uneven heating of the earth's surface - Air currents bring warm and cold air to different places, which also moves moisture and therefore, different areas experience different levels of precipitationWhat are the properties that determine how air circulates in the atmosphere?1. Air Density (warm air rises) 2. Water vapor capacity (saturation) 3. Adiabatic Heating/Cooling 4. Latent Heat Releaseadiabatic heatingthe heating effect of increased pressure on air as it sinks toward the surface of Earth and decreases in volumeadiabatic coolingthe cooling effect of reduced pressure on air as it rises higher in the atmosphere and expandslatent heat releasethe release of energy when water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into liquid waterAtmospheric convection currentsglobal patterns of air movement that are initiated by the unequal heating of EarthHadley Cellsa large-scale atmospheric convection cell in which air rises at the equator and sinks at medium latitudes, typically about 30° north or southIntertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)The latitude that receives the most intense sunlight, which causes the ascending branches of the two Hadley cells to converge - this zone has a lot of dense clouds and thunderstorm activityPolar Cellswhere polar air sinks and flows away from the poles downward meeting the ferrel cells at 60 degrees latitudeFerrel CellsLocated between 30° and 60° N and S, This causes high rainfall areas around 30° and 60° N and SCoriolis EffectThe effect of Earth's rotation on the direction of winds and currents.The northern hemisphere's winds gocounterclockwiseThe southern hemisphere's winds goclockwiserain shadowa region with dry conditions found on the leeward side of a mountain range as a result of humid winds from the ocean causing precipitation on the windward sidegyresHuge circular moving current systems dominate the surfaces of the oceans.gyres moveclockwise in the northern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the southern hemisphereupwellingThe movement of deep, cold, and nutrient-rich water to the surfaceupwelling occurson the western side of continentsthermohaline circulationan oceanic circulation pattern that drives the mixing of surface water and deep waterEl Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)The periodic changes in winds and ocean currents, causing cooler and wetter conditions in the southeastern United States and unusually dry weather in southern Africa and Southeast Asia.lake layerslittoral, limnetic, profundal, benthicocean layersintertidal zone, photic gets sunlight, so has more life; aphotic is deeper and has no light/, Surface (mixed) layer (0-200m; it stays well mixed) Intermediate layer (200-1500m; it has a major temperature change) Bottom layer (1500-bottom; it is uniformly cold at 4°C)levels of lake productivityoligotrophic (low), mesotrophic (mid), eutrophic (high)estuaryA habitat in which the fresh water of a river meets the salt water of the ocean.Species Richnessthe number of different species in a communitySpecies Evennessrelative abundance of each speciesPhylogenyEvolutionary history of a speciesEvolutionChange over timegenotypegenetic makeup of an organismphenotypeAn organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.Artificial SelectionBreeding organisms with specific traits in order to produce offspring with identical traits.5 key ideas to Darwin's theory of natural selection- individuals produce an excess amount of offspring - not all offspring can survive - individuals differ in their traits - differences in traits can be passed on from parents to offspring - differences in traits are associated with differences in ability to survive and reproducefitnessAbility of an organism to survive and reproduce in its environmentadaptationA trait that helps an organism survive and reproducemutationA change in a gene or chromosome.gene flowmovement of alleles from one population to anothergenetic driftA change in the allele frequency of a population as a result of random matingbottleneck effectrandom process that changes a group's genetic compositionfounder effectchange in allele frequencies as a result of the migration of a small subgroup of a populationallopatric speciationThe formation of new species in populations that are geographically isolated from one another.sympatric speciationThe formation of new species in populations that live in the same geographic areaNiche Generalista species that can live under a wide range of abiotic or biotic conditionsNiche Specialista species that is specialized to live in a specific habitat or to feed on a small group of speciesLevels of organizationindividual, population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere5 major characteristics that help us understand how populations change over timeSize, Density, Distribution, Sex Ratio, and Age StructureDensity independent factorslimiting factor that affects all populations in similar ways, regardless of population sizedensity dependent factorslimiting factor that depends on population sizepopulation growth ratethe number of offspring an individual can produce in a given time period, minus the deaths of the individual or its offspring during the same periodexponential growth modelgrowth model that estimates a population's future size after a period of time based on the intrinsic growth rate and the number of reproducing individuals currently in the populationK selected speciesa species with a low intrinsic growth rate that causes the population to increase slowly until it reaches carrying capacity; (low number of offspring, long time to reach maturity, and stable population)r selected speciesa species that has a high intrinsic growth rate, which often leads to population overshoots and die-offs, (large # of offspring, short life span, fast growth rate, and little to no parental care)Type 1 survivorship curvea pattern of survival over time in which there is high survival throughout most of the life span, but then individuals start to die in large numbers as they approach old agetype 2 survivorship curvefairly constant death rate at all ages (small mammals and large birds)type 3 survivorship curvea pattern of survival over time in which there is low survivorship early in life with few individuals reaching adulthoodmetapopulationa group of spatially distinct populations that are connected by occasional movements of individuals between themCompetitive ExclusionStrong competition can lead to local elimination of one of the species.Resource PartitioningThe division of environmental resources by coexisting species such that the niche of each species differs by one or more significant factors from the niches of all coexisting speciestemporal resource partitioningspecies reduce competition by utilizing same resource at different timesspatial resource partitioningspecies reduce competition by utilizing same resource in different habitatsmorphological resource partitioningspecies reduce competition by evolving differences in body and shapecompetitionthe struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resourcespredatationAn interaction in which one organism kills and eats another.parasitoidsorganisms that lay eggs inside other organismsParasitismA relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmedherbivoryinteraction in which one animal (the herbivore) feeds on producers (such as plants)mutualismA relationship between two species in which both species benefitcommensalismA relationship between two organisms in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffectedkeystone speciesA species that influences the survival of many other species in an ecosystempioneer speciesFirst species to populate an area during primary successionsecondary successionSuccession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soilaffluencewealth; richnessMalthus predictionPopulations are "kept in check" by the food supply.formula for growth rate(CBR-CDR)/10formula to calculate population double time70/growth ratereplacement level fertilitythe total fertility rate required to offset the average number of deaths in a population in order to maintain the current population sizeinfant mortality vs. child mortalityinfant mortality is the # of deaths of children under age of 1 per 1000 births, and child mortality is the # of deaths of children under age 5 per 1000 live birthsage structuresthe distribution of individuals in different age-groupstheory of demographic transitionthe theory that as a country moves from a subsistence economy to industrialization and increased affluence it undergoes a predictable shift in population growthGDPGross Domestic Product- the total market value of all final goods and services produced annually in an economyMillenium Ecosystem Assessmentthe most comprehensive scientific review of the present condition of the world's ecological systems and their ability to continue supporting our civilization