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The study of the earth and its structure is called this?


Scientists who study the structure of the earth are called?

crust, mantle, core

Geologists divide the interior of the earth into 3 major sections...What are they?


The outermost layer of the earth is called the?


The rocks of the crust are covered by a thin layer of soil and a thick layer of sand and mineral fragments called this?

by water

Most sediments are laid down by what?


In some places, this sedimentary covering has been worn away, or_________, so that the actual rock of the earth's crust can be seen.


The temperature of the rocks ___________ with depth.

the warmer it gets

Finish this statement: The deeper you go...

120 degrees Fahrenheit.

2 1/2 miles beneath the earth's surface, the temperature of the rocks is over?

900 degrees Fahrenheit

AT the bottom of the earth's crust 20-25 miles beneath our feet, the rocks are hotter than what?


Beneath the earth's crust lies the ________, the middle layer of the earth.


The mantle is about 1800 miles thick and makes up the _____________ portion of the earth's interior.


The boundary between the crust and the mantle is called the ___________?

Mohorovicic discontinuity

Moho is named after the Croatian geologist who discovered it. What does Moho stand for?

hotter and hotter

If you could descend through the earth's mantle, you would find that the temperature continued to grow ___________ and ____________as you traveled deeper.

900-4000 degrees Fahrenheit

The temperature of the mantle rocks rises from about _________ at the top of the mantle to nearly ________at the bottom. This is hot enough to melt steel.


Like the crust, the mantle is made of solid ______?


Beneath the mantle lies the____________, the innermost region of the earth.


The core extends from the bottom of the mantle all the way to the center of the earth, ___________ miles beneath our feet.

iron and nickel

The core is composed of dense metals like __________ and ________________?

outer core

The white-hot __________ __________ consists of molten iron and nickel.

electrical currents

Circulating ___________ _____________ in the liquid metal of the outer core generate the earth's magnetic field.

inner core

The __________ __________ is a mass of even hotter metal, but it remains solid instead of a liquid because of the much greater pressure upon it.


__________ is essential for all plant life?


New soil is formed by ___________, a process that causes rocks to gradually break or crumble into smaller pieces.

chemical or physical

Geologists classify weathering as either what two things?

Chemical weathering

___________ ___________ occurs when natural acids slowly eat into a rock and break it apart.

oxygen and carbon dioxide

Natural acids are produced when rainwater mixes with ________ and ____________ __________ gases in the air.


__________ are also produced by mosses and lichens clinging to a rock.

Physical weathering

______________ ____________ takes place when rock is broken down by water, ice, or windblown sand.


Most geologists believe that the earth's crust does not consist of one huge, unbroken shell of rock, but of several individual __________ that "float" like rafts on the soft rock of the upper mantle.

eight inches

Careful measurements show that some of the earth's plates are drifting as much as __________ ___________ per year.


In all, _________ large plates and several smaller plates are thought to exist.

North American plate

Most of the United States is located on the ___________ _____________ _________, except for the southwestern California.

Pacific Plate

Southwestern California is on the ____________ ____________?


When two plates collide head-on, they may fold or buckle, producing __________.

plate boundaries.

Most of the world's large mountain ranges are located at or near?

Indo-Australian and Eurasian

The Himalayas, the highest mountains on Earth, lie on the boundary between the _________________ plate and the ___________ plate.

mid-oceanic ridges

The earth's oceans contain underwater mountain ranges called _____________ ____________ where plates of the earth's crust are moving away from each other.


As these plates move apart, they create a gap, or _____, between them that is quickly filled by molten rock rising from below, forming a ridge.


When one plate goes under another plate. When this happens, a deep __________, like a muddy valley, is formed in the ocean floor.


These trenches are the ________ places in the ocean.

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