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Butyric Acid (Butanoic acid)

N = 4

caproic acid (hexanoic acid)

N = 6

caprylic acid (octanoic acid)

N = 8

capric acid (decanoic acid)

N = 10

Phytanic Acid

-Plant Derived
-Found in dairy and ruminant fats
-With out proper enzyme -> Refsum's Disease

Refsum's Disease

Unable to metabolize Phytanic acid. Leads to peripheral polyneuropathy.

Monoenoic acid

monounsaturated. naturally cis

alpha linolenic acid

Omega-3 PUFA

eicosapentaenoic acid (Timnodonic acid)

EPA with 5 double bonds. Omega-3 in fish

docosahexanoic acid (cervonic acid)

DHA with 6 double bonds. Omega-3 in fish


Purified mixture of EPA and DHA.

Hard soap = ?
Soft Soap = ?
Transparent soap = ?
Ca and mg soap = ?

- Na
- K
-very poorly soluble

Lipid Peroxidation

Tissue and food spoilage. (also DNA oxidation -> cancer and aging)

Drying oils.

Hydrogenated Fats

More stable to oxygen increasing shelf life

Saponification number

-average size of FA's
-mg of KOH to neutralize 1g of fat
-short chain (butter) = larger number
-long chain = smaller number

Iodine Number

-degree of unsaturation
-higher number, more unsaturated
- determines spoilage of oils

Acetyl number

the number of free -OH groups.

Reichert - Meissl number

- measures how volatile fats are
- number of .1 N required to neutralize FA from 5 grams of fat

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