Terms in this set (35)
What type of sugar is found RNA?
What type of sugar is found in DNA?
How many strands does RNA generally have?
What bases does RNA include?
-adenine, uracil, guanine, cytosine
What is the role mRNA?
-carries instructions of polypeptide synthesis from nucleus to ribosomes in the cytoplasm
What is the role rRNA?
-forms an important part of both subunits of the ribosome
What is the role of tRNA?
-carries amino acids to the ribosome and matches them to the coded mRNA message
What is transcription?
-the process of using DNA to produce complementary RNA molecules
The sequence of what in mRNA complements the sequence in the the DNA template?
In eukaryotes, where is RNA formed? Afterwards, where does it travel?
-in the nucleus
-to the cytoplasm
What enzyme binds to DNA during transcription?
What is the role RNA polymerase?
-binds to DNA during transcription and separates the DNA strands
-then uses one strand of DNA as a template from which to assemble nucleotides into a complementary strand of RNA
What regions of DNA does RNA polymerase bind to?
What are promoters?
-regions of DNA that have specific base sequences
-signals in the DNA molecule that show RNA polymerase exactly where to begin making RNA
What are introns?
-portions of RNA that are cut out and discarded
What are exons?
-remaining pieces that are spliced together to make the final mRNA
What is RNA?
-nucleic acid that helps put the genetic code in DNA into acid
What are polypeptides?
-long chains of nucleic acid
What is the difference between transcription and translation?
-during transcription RNA is produced from DNA templates
-during translation that RNA is read to form polypeptide chains
Where does translation occur?
-in the cytoplasm
What is translation?
-the decoding of an mRNA message into a protein
What are anticodons?
-groups of three nucleotide bases in tRNA that is complementary to one codon
At what point is the polypeptide complete?
-when the stop codon is reached (UGA)
Describe the beginning of translation.
-ribosome attaches to mRNA at the start codon to attract its complimentary anticodon
Describe the assembly of the polypeptide.
-the ribosome joins two amino acids and breaks the bond between them and the tRNA
What's the role of mRNA in translation?
-carries the coded message that directs the process
What's the role of tRNA in translation?
-deliever exactly the right amino acid called for by each codon on the mRNA
What's the role of rRNA in translation?
-help hold ribosomal proteins in place -help locate the begining of the mRNA
Where are the instructions for assembling proteins contained?
-in the genes
What is the central dogma of molecular biology?
-information that is transferred from DNA to RNA to protein
What are all organisms mostly the same in?
-the molecular biology of their genes
What is an exception to the central dogma?
-the ability of some viruses to transfer information from RNA to DNA
Whether the organism is a pea plant or a human beings, the information in the DNA of the cell's nucleus directs synthesis of proteins in the cytoplasm. Why, then, are pea plants and human beings so different?
-they contain different DNA, which directs the synthesis of different proteins
What is gene expression?
-the way genetic information is put into action
How does mRNA leave the nucleus?
-through the nuclear pores
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