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apologia biology study notes


the removal of non-soluble waste materials


the removal of soluble waste materials


the release of bio synthesized substances

layers of a plant cell

plasma membrane, secondary cell wall, primary cell wall

what is between two plant cells

middle lamella


the breakdown of absorbed substances


the breakdown of food molecules with a release of energy


the transport of dissolved substances into cells


process of making useful substances

organelles involved in biosynthesis

ribosomes, rough and smooth ER, golgi body, nucleus, secretion vesicles, chloroplasts, leucoplasts

smooth ER makes


rough ER makes


anaerobic respiration is also called what


aerobic respiration occurs where


anaerobic respiration occurs where


what part in cellular respiration produces the most energy

electron transport

how much energy does the electron transport make

32 ATPs

what does the plasma membrane do

keeps everything in its place

isotonic solution

solution where solutes inside and outside the cell equal

hypertonic solution

solution with more solutes in solution than in the cell

hypotonic solution

a solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution


hypo tonic-explodes


hyper tonic-collapses

four stages in cellular respiration

glycolysis, formation of acetyl co-enzyme A, Krebb cycle, electron transport

how much energy does glycolysis produce

2 ATPs

how much energy does formation of acetyl co-enzyme A produce


how much energy does the Krebb cycle make

2 ATPs

what is used in cytoplasmic streaming

cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, ions


imbalance of protons and electrons

activation energy

energy needed to activate glycolysis


white blood cells engulf bacteria and get rid of dying cells and take in protein

what is the cytoskeleton made up of

microfilaments, microtubuoles, intermediate filaments, endoplasmic reticulum

power house of a cell


where is DNA found in a cell

in the nucleus and mitochondria

what organelled stores lipids and proteins

golgi body

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