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migration is a form of


repetitive or cyclical movements are


Why does migration occur much less frequently than other forms of mobility?

it produces profound changes for the individual and culture

the changing scale resulting from modern transportation has resulted in....?

Relocation diffusion becoming more feasible

Why do people migrate in large numbers?

Place is still important to an individual's cultural identity and economic prospects

11 migration laws were written by

E.G. Ravenstein

Job prospects vary from country to country due to

economic restructuring

Millions of people were shipped to other countries as slaves and prisoners in

the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries

Palestinian refugees

left Israel after 1948 or 1967

Iraqi refugees

left after 2003 invasion

Afghan refugees

left after civil war

Europeans were drawn to democracy in Western Europe in

late 1940's

West Europe's political pull disappeared in


One of the biggest environmental push factors is


In the past, intervening obstacles were primarily

environmental or cultural features obstacles that prevented migration

Migration transition coined by

Wilbur Zelinsky

Stage 1

high daily/seasonal mobility

Stage 2

international migration and rural to urban

Stages 3 and 4

destination for international migrants: cities to suburbs

Ravenstein said most migrants were


55 percent of migrants were male in

twentieth centuries

pattern of male/female immigration reversed in


In the late 1980,s ___percent of unauthorized immigrants were male


__ percent of immigrants are between ages of 25-39 compared to ___ of the US population

40, 23

__ percent of immigrants are elderly, compared to __ of the US population

5, 12

___ of migrants are under the age of 15 compared to __of total population

16, 21

The typical unauthorized Mexican immigrants has attended school for ___ years


____percent of the world's people are international migrants


net- migration: Asia, LA, Africa


net- migration, NA, Europe, Oceania


____ has more foreign born residents than any other country


US has ______ million as of 2010


highest rates of immigration in

Middle East

___ million migrated to the US between 1820 and 2010


reason for migration

rapid population growth limited prospects for economic advancement at home

______- Europeans migrated to the US prior to independence, and _______ after until 1840

1 million, 1 million

____ percent of Europeans who came to the US prior to 1840 came from Great Britain


_____Africans were brought to America through forced migration during the eighteenth century


___ million Europeans came into the US


_____sent the largest number of European migrants


#2 source of European immigrants to the US


#3 source of European immigrants to the US


1840-50 most came from____ due to these two push factors:

Ireland and Germany, desperate economic push factors, political unrest

US immigration resumed in ____ after a break due to the Civil War


1880's most came from _____ due to what?

Scandinavia, the Industrial Revolution

1900-14 most from and due to...

two thirds from Southeast Europe, Industrial revolution

How many US immigrants in 1840-1850?

20,000 to 200,000 per year

How many people immigrated into the US in the 1880's?

500,000 per year

How many annual US immigrants 1900-14?

1,000,000 per year

Immigration to the US dropped sharply when?

In the 1930's, then during WWII

Number of US immigrants steadily increased during to


Mexico passed Germany is # of immigrants when officially, when probably?

2006, 1980

Cause of spike in 1990 migration

1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act

How has the US changed immigration-wise?

By 1912, the frontier and immigration basically closed

European immigration into the US ended by

1914- WWII

European immigration due to overpopulation into the US has led to the NYC being called the

safety valve

An 1834 agreement gave Ellis Island to NYS and submerged areas to

Where Evan's parents come from

Ellis island has gone from __ to ____ hectares

1.1, 10.6

Which regions have attracted large numbers of immigrants in the US due to rapid growth in the US?

South and the West, where Ben is from

Mexicans have moved to where for industrial jobs?


What was the principal obstacle traditionally faced by migrants to other countries?


The Quota Act in 1921 and the National Origins Act of 1924 acts did what?

established country quotas: 2 percent of people living in the US native born could immigrate

Until the 1960's, ______ per year could come from the Eastern Hemisphere


Following the Immigration of 1965, by 1968, country quotas were replaced by

Hemisphere quotas

1968:How many Eastern hemisphere/Western immigrants?

170,000 and 120,000

1978: , what kind of quota?

Global, and a per country quota: 20,000 per country, with 290,000 in total

Current quota

global 620,000, an 7 percent per country

Temporary workers in Europe and the Middle East are called what?

guest workers

Guest workers comprise how much of Luxenbourg's labor force?


Guest workers comprise how much of the Swiss labor force?


What country experienced a foreign born population from .75 million to 5.25 million?


What country experience a foreign born population increase from .25 million to .5 million?


In the nineteenth century, what group comprise millions of workers in mines?

Asian time contract workers

How many ethnic Chinese live in other countries?

33 million

In recent decades, which countries have sent about 25,000 emigrants to the US, all who are possible economic migrants OR refugees?

Cuba, Vietnam, and Haiti

Where was the U.S. center of population in 1790?

Chesapeake Bay, near Chestertown Maryland

What inhibited settlement in the interior of America in 1790?

The Appalachian Mountains

What allowed the for the expansion of the interior of America in the early 1800s?

Transportation improvements

Where was the U.S center of population in 1840?

Weston, West Virginia

Where was the U.S. center of population in 1890?

Greensburg, Indiana

What was the pull factor for immigrants in the late 1840s?

The Gold Rush

What was the U.S. center of population in 1940?

150 miles west of Greensburg, Indiana

What areas were beginning to be filled by immigrants in 1940?

Areas between the 98th meridian and California

Why did the westward movement of the U.S. population center slow in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century?

Large-scale migration to the East Coast from Europe offset some of the migration from the East coast to the U.S. West

What was the U.S. center of population in 2000?

Central Missouri

Why did the population center drift towards the south from 1940 to 2000?

More job opportunities and better environmental conditions in the south.

How has interregional migrational patterns changed in the U.S. in the twenty-first century?

It has decreased because regional economic differences are less dramatic

Where did Soviet Policy encourage factory construction?

Near raw materials rather than existing population concentrations

Why did Russia encourage interregional migration to the Far North?

It was where the resources were available

Why did Brazil want to promote interregional migration?

To help develop the sparsely inhabited center of the country

How did Indonesia encourage migration from the island of Java?

It offered a free air ticket, 5 acres of land, materials to build a house, seeds and pesticides, and a year's worth of rice for families that migrate

In what direction is the principal flow of interregional migration in Europe?

From South East to North West

Where did wealthy Western European countries receive many immigrants from in the twentieth century?

Their former colonies in Africa and Asia

What did the expansion of the European Union into Eastern Europe in the twenty-first century allow for?

Bulgarians, Romanians, and residents of former communist countries to migrate to Western Europe

Italians typically immigrate from ______ Italy to ______ Italy.

Southern, Northern

Britons typically migrate from _______ to _____.

North, South

Why is a permit required in India to migrate or visit the State of Assam?

To protect the ethnic identity of the Assamese by limiting competing outsiders

Migration from rural areas to urban areas began in what time period and location?

In the 1800s in Europe and North America as part of the industrial revolution.

The percentage of people living in urban areas int he United States changed from ___% in 1800 to ___% in 1920.

5, 50

Today, approximately ___% of the people in the United States and other MDCs live in urban areas.


The number of Asians living in urban areas increased from ____ in 1982 to _____ in 2007 while the number in rural areas decreased from ____ to _____

1/2 billion, 1 3/4 billion. 1 3/4 billion, 1 1/4 billion.

The population of most cities in MDCs declined or inclined in the twenty-first century


In the twenty-first century, _______ as many Americans migrate from central cities to suburbs as do migrate from suburbs to central cities.


What is the major reason for large-scale migration to the suburbs?

People are pulled by a suburban lifestyle

In MDCs in the late twentieth century, did more people immigrate from urban to rural areas, or from rural to urban areas?

Urban to rural

Today, do more people immigrate from urban to rural areas, or from rural to urban areas?

It is the same amount

The number of Latin Americans into the US entering the US annually is more than twice than what?

immigration in the entire nineteenth century

How many immigrants were processed at Ellis Island? ___ million


What was crucial evidence in the decision between Joisey and NY?

a map from the NJDEP

how many children are living with unauthorized immigrants, but are current citizens?

4 million

How many unauthorized immigrants live in Cali?

one fourth

How many immigrants live in NYC?

one sixth

How many immigrants live in Cali?

one fifth

In 2008, how many migrated to Cali?


Poles moving to Illinois is a result of what?

chain migration

Guatemalans move to mexico to

work on fruit plantations/move to the US

In 2007, how much $$ was sent from the US to Mexico?

14 billion

how many cubans migrated to the US after 1959?


how many cubans migrated through the marial boatlift?


how many cubans are permitted into the US as of 1987?


The fact that Haitians still migrate into the US shows what?

Economic factors are always the most important

vietname war ended in 1975: what happened?

refugees left by boat and helicopter to escape possible persecution

second surge of vietnamese in


why did Americans temper their dislike for immigrants in the early twentieth century?

they helped settle the frontier and give the US control

the severe global recession

reduced the numbers of guest workers

the movement of the US population center ____in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century


What factors led to the slowing of the movement of the US population center in the late nineteenth century?

Immigration from Europe, agricultural technology, and the use of the railroads

Why have regional differences in employment become similar?

there are new jobs in the service sector of the economy

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