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128 terms

Migration test

STUDY
PLAY
migration is a form of
mobility
repetitive or cyclical movements are
circulation
Why does migration occur much less frequently than other forms of mobility?
it produces profound changes for the individual and culture
the changing scale resulting from modern transportation has resulted in....?
Relocation diffusion becoming more feasible
Why do people migrate in large numbers?
Place is still important to an individual's cultural identity and economic prospects
11 migration laws were written by
E.G. Ravenstein
Job prospects vary from country to country due to
economic restructuring
Millions of people were shipped to other countries as slaves and prisoners in
the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries
Palestinian refugees
left Israel after 1948 or 1967
Iraqi refugees
left after 2003 invasion
Afghan refugees
left after civil war
Europeans were drawn to democracy in Western Europe in
late 1940's
West Europe's political pull disappeared in
1990s
One of the biggest environmental push factors is
water
In the past, intervening obstacles were primarily
environmental or cultural features obstacles that prevented migration
Migration transition coined by
Wilbur Zelinsky
Stage 1
high daily/seasonal mobility
Stage 2
international migration and rural to urban
Stages 3 and 4
destination for international migrants: cities to suburbs
Ravenstein said most migrants were
male
55 percent of migrants were male in
twentieth centuries
pattern of male/female immigration reversed in
1990s
In the late 1980,s ___percent of unauthorized immigrants were male
85
__ percent of immigrants are between ages of 25-39 compared to ___ of the US population
40, 23
__ percent of immigrants are elderly, compared to __ of the US population
5, 12
___ of migrants are under the age of 15 compared to __of total population
16, 21
The typical unauthorized Mexican immigrants has attended school for ___ years
4
____percent of the world's people are international migrants
9
net- migration: Asia, LA, Africa
out
net- migration, NA, Europe, Oceania
in
____ has more foreign born residents than any other country
US
US has ______ million as of 2010
40
highest rates of immigration in
Middle East
___ million migrated to the US between 1820 and 2010
75
reason for migration
rapid population growth limited prospects for economic advancement at home
______- Europeans migrated to the US prior to independence, and _______ after until 1840
1 million, 1 million
____ percent of Europeans who came to the US prior to 1840 came from Great Britain
90
_____Africans were brought to America through forced migration during the eighteenth century
400,000
___ million Europeans came into the US
40
_____sent the largest number of European migrants
Germany
#2 source of European immigrants to the US
Italy
#3 source of European immigrants to the US
UK
1840-50 most came from____ due to these two push factors:
Ireland and Germany, desperate economic push factors, political unrest
US immigration resumed in ____ after a break due to the Civil War
1870's
1880's most came from _____ due to what?
Scandinavia, the Industrial Revolution
1900-14 most from and due to...
two thirds from Southeast Europe, Industrial revolution
How many US immigrants in 1840-1850?
20,000 to 200,000 per year
How many people immigrated into the US in the 1880's?
500,000 per year
How many annual US immigrants 1900-14?
1,000,000 per year
Immigration to the US dropped sharply when?
In the 1930's, then during WWII
Number of US immigrants steadily increased during to
1950s
Mexico passed Germany is # of immigrants when officially, when probably?
2006, 1980
Cause of spike in 1990 migration
1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act
How has the US changed immigration-wise?
By 1912, the frontier and immigration basically closed
European immigration into the US ended by
1914- WWII
European immigration due to overpopulation into the US has led to the NYC being called the
safety valve
An 1834 agreement gave Ellis Island to NYS and submerged areas to
Where Evan's parents come from
Ellis island has gone from __ to ____ hectares
1.1, 10.6
Which regions have attracted large numbers of immigrants in the US due to rapid growth in the US?
South and the West, where Ben is from
Mexicans have moved to where for industrial jobs?
Midwest
What was the principal obstacle traditionally faced by migrants to other countries?
environment
The Quota Act in 1921 and the National Origins Act of 1924 acts did what?
established country quotas: 2 percent of people living in the US native born could immigrate
Until the 1960's, ______ per year could come from the Eastern Hemisphere
150,000
Following the Immigration of 1965, by 1968, country quotas were replaced by
Hemisphere quotas
1968:How many Eastern hemisphere/Western immigrants?
170,000 and 120,000
1978: , what kind of quota?
Global, and a per country quota: 20,000 per country, with 290,000 in total
Current quota
global 620,000, an 7 percent per country
Temporary workers in Europe and the Middle East are called what?
guest workers
Guest workers comprise how much of Luxenbourg's labor force?
one-half
Guest workers comprise how much of the Swiss labor force?
one-sixth
What country experienced a foreign born population from .75 million to 5.25 million?
Spain
What country experience a foreign born population increase from .25 million to .5 million?
Ireland
In the nineteenth century, what group comprise millions of workers in mines?
Asian time contract workers
How many ethnic Chinese live in other countries?
33 million
In recent decades, which countries have sent about 25,000 emigrants to the US, all who are possible economic migrants OR refugees?
Cuba, Vietnam, and Haiti
Where was the U.S. center of population in 1790?
Chesapeake Bay, near Chestertown Maryland
What inhibited settlement in the interior of America in 1790?
The Appalachian Mountains
What allowed the for the expansion of the interior of America in the early 1800s?
Transportation improvements
Where was the U.S center of population in 1840?
Weston, West Virginia
Where was the U.S. center of population in 1890?
Greensburg, Indiana
What was the pull factor for immigrants in the late 1840s?
The Gold Rush
What was the U.S. center of population in 1940?
150 miles west of Greensburg, Indiana
What areas were beginning to be filled by immigrants in 1940?
Areas between the 98th meridian and California
Why did the westward movement of the U.S. population center slow in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century?
Large-scale migration to the East Coast from Europe offset some of the migration from the East coast to the U.S. West
What was the U.S. center of population in 2000?
Central Missouri
Why did the population center drift towards the south from 1940 to 2000?
More job opportunities and better environmental conditions in the south.
How has interregional migrational patterns changed in the U.S. in the twenty-first century?
It has decreased because regional economic differences are less dramatic
Where did Soviet Policy encourage factory construction?
Near raw materials rather than existing population concentrations
Why did Russia encourage interregional migration to the Far North?
It was where the resources were available
Why did Brazil want to promote interregional migration?
To help develop the sparsely inhabited center of the country
How did Indonesia encourage migration from the island of Java?
It offered a free air ticket, 5 acres of land, materials to build a house, seeds and pesticides, and a year's worth of rice for families that migrate
In what direction is the principal flow of interregional migration in Europe?
From South East to North West
Where did wealthy Western European countries receive many immigrants from in the twentieth century?
Their former colonies in Africa and Asia
What did the expansion of the European Union into Eastern Europe in the twenty-first century allow for?
Bulgarians, Romanians, and residents of former communist countries to migrate to Western Europe
Italians typically immigrate from ______ Italy to ______ Italy.
Southern, Northern
Britons typically migrate from _______ to _____.
North, South
Why is a permit required in India to migrate or visit the State of Assam?
To protect the ethnic identity of the Assamese by limiting competing outsiders
Migration from rural areas to urban areas began in what time period and location?
In the 1800s in Europe and North America as part of the industrial revolution.
The percentage of people living in urban areas int he United States changed from ___% in 1800 to ___% in 1920.
5, 50
Today, approximately ___% of the people in the United States and other MDCs live in urban areas.
75
The number of Asians living in urban areas increased from ____ in 1982 to _____ in 2007 while the number in rural areas decreased from ____ to _____
1/2 billion, 1 3/4 billion. 1 3/4 billion, 1 1/4 billion.
The population of most cities in MDCs declined or inclined in the twenty-first century
declined
In the twenty-first century, _______ as many Americans migrate from central cities to suburbs as do migrate from suburbs to central cities.
twice
What is the major reason for large-scale migration to the suburbs?
People are pulled by a suburban lifestyle
In MDCs in the late twentieth century, did more people immigrate from urban to rural areas, or from rural to urban areas?
Urban to rural
Today, do more people immigrate from urban to rural areas, or from rural to urban areas?
It is the same amount
The number of Latin Americans into the US entering the US annually is more than twice than what?
immigration in the entire nineteenth century
How many immigrants were processed at Ellis Island? ___ million
12
What was crucial evidence in the decision between Joisey and NY?
a map from the NJDEP
how many children are living with unauthorized immigrants, but are current citizens?
4 million
How many unauthorized immigrants live in Cali?
one fourth
How many immigrants live in NYC?
one sixth
How many immigrants live in Cali?
one fifth
In 2008, how many migrated to Cali?
50,000+
Poles moving to Illinois is a result of what?
chain migration
Guatemalans move to mexico to
work on fruit plantations/move to the US
In 2007, how much $$ was sent from the US to Mexico?
14 billion
how many cubans migrated to the US after 1959?
600,000
how many cubans migrated through the marial boatlift?
125,000
how many cubans are permitted into the US as of 1987?
20,000
The fact that Haitians still migrate into the US shows what?
Economic factors are always the most important
vietname war ended in 1975: what happened?
refugees left by boat and helicopter to escape possible persecution
second surge of vietnamese in
1980
why did Americans temper their dislike for immigrants in the early twentieth century?
they helped settle the frontier and give the US control
the severe global recession
reduced the numbers of guest workers
the movement of the US population center ____in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century
slowed
What factors led to the slowing of the movement of the US population center in the late nineteenth century?
Immigration from Europe, agricultural technology, and the use of the railroads
Why have regional differences in employment become similar?
there are new jobs in the service sector of the economy