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The process of evaluating the future value of money worth a given sum today at some point in the future.


The prcoess of evaluating the present value of money with a stated future value.

present value

The value today (at time t=0) of an investment or loan.

future value

The _____________ of an investment or loan at a specified time, t, is the sum of the present value plus all interest accumulated during the specified time. ___________ at time t is denoted as F(t).

APR (annual percentage rate)

When the interest rate is reported as the annual interest rate (in decimal form) or ________________ (in percentage form), it refers to the increase that is earned on the principal only. This annual interest rate is also referred to as the nominal rate (in decimal form).

simple interest

The accumulated interest I after t years an an annual interest rate r on a present value of P dollars is calculated as I(t)= Prt dollars.


Occurs when interest is earned (or charged) on previous interest.

APY (annual percentage yield)

The decimal form of _________________ is the effective rate of interest.

fixed costs

Costs that remain constant no matter how much merchandise is produced.

variable costs

Costs that change depending on the number of units produced.

total cost

The sum of fixed cost and variable cost.

average cvst

The total cost divided by the number of items produced.


The product of selling price per unit and the number of units sold.


The difference between revenue and cost.

break-even point

The point at which total cost is equal to total revenue. This occurs when profit is exactly zero.

function addition

Used to create total cost, C.

function multiplication

Used to create variable cost, V.

function subtraction

Used to create profit, P.

function division

Used to create average cost, C.

function composition

A method of constructing functions that uses the output of one function as the input of another.Two outputs, f and g, can be combied using _______________ if the output from one function, f, can be used as input to the other function, g. In _______________, the unit of measure for the output of function f must be identical to the unit of measure for the input of function g.

quadratic functions

Form the third family of functions that exhibit only a single type of concavity over the entire input interval. Differ from exponential and logarithmic functions in that they also exhibit a change of direction. Are increasing over a portion of their unrestricted input interval and decreasing over another portion of their unrestricted input interval.


The graph of a quadratic function is a _____________.

second differences

The differences of the first differences.

logistic function

In many situations, forces ultimately limit growth. In this case a _______________ would increase toward an upper limit. In other contexts, __________________ can describe a decline toward a lower limit.

cubic functions

Have a change in concavity. In every ______________, the curvature of the graph changes once from concave down to concave up or vice versa. The graph of a ______________ has one inflection point and unbounded end behavior.

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