55 terms

Chapter 11: Understanding Self and Others 11.1

Who was the influential development psychologist, who wrote that adolescence was, "strewn with wreckage of mind, and morals."
G. Stanley Hall
What is a self-concept?
The attitudes, behaviors, and values that a person believes make him or her a unique individual. It's the concept behind, "Who am I".
What do modern psychologists believe is the foundation if self concept? And whose ideas do they follow?
The child's self awareness that he or she exists.
They follow the lead of the 19th century psychologist William James.
What is self awareness?
It's when children realize that they exist independently of other people and objects in the environment and that their existence continues over time.
How do infants become more self aware?
From watching their arms and legs as they move, infants become aware of their bodies.
Describe the red-mark phenomenon
A red mark is placed surreptitiously by a parent on an infant's cheek. When placed in front of a mirror, one year old's reach out to touch the red mark on the mirror. Showing understanding that they can see the mark on their face in the mirror.
At what age do most babies see the mark in the mirror and reach out to touch their own noses?
2 years of age. This marks the next landmark in children's self awareness.
Under what circumstance are children more likely to be aware that they are independent beings?
When their cultures emphasize that independent nature.
At what age do toddlers look more at photographs of themselves than at photos of other children?
Between 18-24 months

At this age they also refer to themselves by name, or with a personal pronoun, such as I or me, and sometimes they know their age and gender.
In most children, at what age is self-awareness well established?
By 2 years of age.
Describe preschooler's sense of self awareness.
During the preschool years children begin to recognize continuity in the self over time; the "I" in the present is linked to the "I" in the past.
Describe the elementary school child's sense of self awareness.
During the elementary school years, children can project themselves into the future, anticipating what the present "I" may be like in the future.
If asked to describe themselves, a preschooler's self concept is more likely to include:
-Physical characteristics: "I have blue eyes"

-Their preferences: "I like cookies"

-Their possessions: "I have trucks"

-Their competencies: "I can count to 50"
What do the features that preschoolers use to describe themselves have in common?
The features all focus on attributes of children that are observable and concrete.

The features also emphasize personal characteristics that are relatively unchanging across time and setting.
If asked to describe themselves, a school age (around 5-7) child's self concept is more likely to include:

-The social groups to which they belong to.

-They are more likely to compare their level of skills with peers: "I'm the best speller in the class."
If asked to describe themselves, an adolescent's self concept is more likely to include:
-Attitudes: "I love algebra."

-Personality traits: "I'm usually a very happy person."

-Make religious and political and beliefs as part of their self concept.

-Their beliefs also vary with the setting: "I'm really shy around people I don't know, but I let loose when I'm around my friends and family."
Is it true that an adolescent's self concept is often future oriented, for example "I want to get married as soon as I finish high school."
What are the two general changes of self concept?
1. Self concept becomes richer as children grow.
2. The type of knowledge that children have of themselves changes.
Is it true that preschool is a time of self-reflection and searching for identity?
False; Adolescence is a time of self-reflection and searching for identity.
Which famous psychologist, said that adolescents struggle to achieve an identity that will allow them to participate in the adult world?
Erik Erikson
To learn more about possible identities, adolescents use the hypothetical reasoning skills of which Piaget stage of cognitive development?
Adolescents use the hypothetical reasoning skills of the formal operational stage to experiment with different selves.
What does much of the testing and experimentation that adolescents involve?
Much of the testing is career oriented, the other testing is romantically involved.

Other exploration involves political and religious beliefs.
What is adolescent egocentrism?
The self-absorption that marks a teenager's search for identity.
What is the imaginary audience phenomena?
When adolescents believe that they are constantly being watched by their peers.
What is the personal fable that fuels adolescent's self absorption?
It's the belief that adolescent's feelings and experiences are unique and have never been experienced by anyone.
What is an illusion of invulnerability?
The belief, common among adolescents, that misfortune only happens to others.

for example: They might believe that they can have sex without becoming pregnant.
T/F: As adolescents make progress toward achieving and identity, adolescent egocentrism, imaginary audiences, personal fables, and the illusion of vulnerability becomes less common.
What are the different phases/ statuses that adolescents go through?
Individuals in this status are confused or overwhelmed by the task of achieving an identity and are doing little to achieve one.
Individuals in this status have an identity determined largely by adults, rather than form personal exploration of alternatives.
Individuals in this status are still examining different alternatives and have yet to find a satisfactory identity.
Individuals in this status have explored alternatives and have deliberately chosen a specific identity.
Most adolescents are in which two phases?
Most adolescents are in a state of diffusion or foreclosure.
Do young people reach the achievement status for all aspects of identity at the same time?
No, for example some adolescents may reach the achievement status for occupation before achieving for religion ands politics.
What circumstances help adolescents achieve identity?
-Social context
-Their personality
T/F: When parents encourage discussion and recognize their children's autonomy, their children are less likely to reach the achievement status.
False, they are more likely to reach the achievement status.
How do peers contribute to adolescents forming an identity?
When adolescents have close friends whom they trust, they feel more secure exploring alternatives.
How does the broader social context contribute to an adolescent forming their identity?
Adolescents living in poverty may not have access to resources that encourage exploration.
Is it true that an adolescents ethnic background may affect their search for identity?
What do minority groups in the U.S. consist of?
-African Americans
-Asian Americans
-Hispanic Americans
-Native Americans
What is an ethnic identity?
It is the feeling that one is part of an ethnic group and the understanding of special customs and tradition of the groups culture and heritage.
What is the first of the three phases involved in forming an ethnic identity?
1. Initially adolescents have not yet examined their ethnic roots. For this person, identity is not yet an important issue.
What is the second of the three phases involved in forming an ethnic identity?
2. In this second phase, adolescents begin to explore the personal impact of their culture. Part of this phase involves learning cultural traditions.
What is the third of the three phases involved in forming an ethnic identity?
In the third phase, individuals achieve a distinct ethnic self-concept.
Do adolescents benefit from a strong ethnic identity?
Yes, adolescents who have achieved an ethnic identity tend to have greater self-esteem and find their interactions with others more satisfying.
Are adolescents with a strong sense of ethnic identity, generally less affected by discrimination?
As generations progress people tend to identify less strongly with their ethnic culture, but rather tend to assimilate mainstream culture. T/F
Why is teen rebelliousness overrated?
Because in reality adolescents generally enjoy happy ad satisfying relationships with their parents.
Does the relationship a child has with their parent change during adolescence?
Why do many conflicts with parents and their adolescent children occur?
Because parents often read far more into the conflicts that teenagers do.
Roughly, what percentage of parent-child conflicts in adolescence are more serious and are associated with behavior problems in adolescence?
Roughly what percentage of adolescents are depressed?
5-15% of adolescents are depressed.

Adolescent girls are more affected than boys.
What are some contributing factors to depression?
-Temperament: children who are less able to regulate their emotions are at risk.

-A belief system in which adolescents see themselves in an extremely negative light

-When parents are emotionally distant and uninvolved.

-Heredity: some teens are predisposed for depression due to low levels of neurotransmitters.
Why aren't antidepressant drugs the best for treating depression?
Because drug treatment has no lasting effects, it only works while the person is taking the drugs and has been linked to increased suicide.
What are better ways of treating depression?
Psychotherapy, and depression preventative programs are better methods of treating depression.