history chapter 16/17
Terms in this set (54)
(1869-1940) Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1937 to 1940. He is responsible for the policy of appeasement with Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany.
1874 to 1965; greatest wartime leader; rallied the British with his speeches, infectious confidence, and bulldog determination; known for his "iron curtain" speech; led the British during World War II; agreed Hitler should be conquered; was thrown out by his own people.
(1883-1945) Italian leader. He founded the Italian Fascist Party, and sided with Hitler and Germany in World War II. In 1945 he was overthrown and assassinated by the Italian Resistance.
A Spanish army general that favored a Fascist-style government and helped in a revolt on the side of Nationalists.
A. Philip Randolph
America's leading black labor leader who called for a march on Washington D.C. to protest factories' refusals to hire African Americans, which eventually led to President Roosevelt issuing an order to end all discrimination in the defense industries.
"Desert Fox"-May 1942; German and Italian armies were led by him and attacked British occupied Egypt and the Suez Canal for the second time; were defeated at the Battle of El Alamein; was moved to France to oversee the defenses before D-Day; tried to assassinate Hitler.
J. Robert Oppenheimer
lead the Manhattan Project: the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear bomb. He was remembered as the "Father of the Atomic Bomb."
(FDR) United States general who supervised the invasion of Normandy, Casablanca and the defeat of Nazi Germany
Commanded Allied troops in the Pacific during World War II. He was forced to surrender the Philippines in 1941 and was thereafter obsessed with its recapture, which he accomplished in 1944. He later commanded the American occupation of Japan and United Nations troops in the Korean War.
This general was premier of Japan during World War II while this man was dictator of the country. He gave his approval for the attack on Pearl Harbor and played a major role in Japan's military decisions until he resigned in 1944
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition
harry s truman
Became president when FDR died; gave the order to drop the atomic bomb
Battle fought very close to Hawaii in 1942, an American victory that saved Hawaii from Japanese takeover
battle of the atlantic
Germany's naval attempt to cut off British supply ships by using u-boats. Caused Britain and the US to officially join the war after their ships were sunk. After this battle, the Allies won control of the seas, allowing them to control supply transfer, which ultimately determined the war. 1939-1945
(FDR) , 1941 United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
An important invasion that lead to the removal of Mussolini from government, only to have him put back later
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II. (p. 797)
City in Russia, site of a Red Army victory over the Germany army in 1942-1943. The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union. Today Volgograd.
battle of the bulge
December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.
1945 -- Major battle in the Pacific that gave US planes access to the Japanese Islands for direct attacks.
Allied forces invade North Africa during WWII, 194
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
A series of court proceedings held in Nuremberg, Germany, after World War II, in which Nazi leaders were tried for aggression, violations of the rules of war, and crimes against humanity.
An area in western Czechoslovakia that was coveted by Hitler.
where the Allies land on June 6, 1944, D-Day
"Night of Broken Glass"
GI bill of rights
Also known as Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 gave money to veternas to study in colleges, universities, gave medical treatment, loans to buy a house or farm or start a new business
May 8, 1945; victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered
"Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945
"Lighting Wars" type of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland in 1939
A series of laws enacted by congress in the mid-1930's that attempted to prevent any American involvement in future oversea wars
Accepting demands in order to avoid conflict
Japanese pilots who volunteered for suicide missions
A limited portion or allowance of food or goods; limitation of use
A secret U.S. project for the construction of the atomic bomb.
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war
women's auxiliary army corps
These women volunteers would serve in noncombat positions. These women served as nurses, ambulance drivers, radio operators, electricians, and pilots.
A military strategy used during World War II that involved selectively attacking specific enemy-held islands and bypassing others
Approve by Congress in March 1941; The act allowed America to sell, lend or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered "vital to the defense of the United States."
1939-Secret agreement between German leader Hitler and Soviet Leader Stalin not to attack one another and to divide Poland
A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition
korematsu v. us
1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 2 each survivor
selective service system
The system used in the United States to draft young people into armed service. Though the United States at present has no draft, young men are required by law to register with the Selective Service when they reach the age of eighteen.
why did the us remain neutral when war broke out in 1939
They wanted to focus on their own problems. They were following a policy of isolationism
how did the treaty of Versailles sow the seeds of instability in europe
Germany had to take full responsibility for the war, pay for damages, reduce its weapons and the size of its army, and give up territory.
how did hitler come to power
Hitler came to power after the depression of the 1920s - millions of Germans were out of work and were willing to listen to him as he had practiced speaking until he was able to hold people spellbound with his words - he promised to help out those who were out of work - others were fearful of Communism and thought that the Nazis would protect Germany - also many Germans felt their country had been wronged by the Allieds in WWI - they listened to this man's promises of revenge - in 1932 the Nazis became the largest party in the German legislature and the following year Hitler became chancellor of Germany and had the legislature pass a law making him dictator of Germany
why did the us break their commercial treaty with japan
German submarines sank three American-owned trade ships; Germans sank the Lusitania, Germany decided to help Mexico reclaim lost land
significance of Spanish civil war
Considered a prelude to WWII, this represented two conflicting ideologies, democratic-republicanism and fascism, and their rising tensions
"cash and carry" policy & benefit to allies
1939. Law passed by Congress which allowed a nation at war to purchase goods and arms in US as long as they paid cash and carried merchandise on their own ships. This benefited the Allies, because Britain was dominant naval power.
zoot suit riots
A series of riots in L.A. California during WW2, soldiers stationed in the city and Mexican youths because of the zoot suits they wore.
war production board
During WWII, FDR established it to allocated scarce materials, limited or stopped the production of civilian goods, and distributed contracts among competing manufacturers
significance of D-day
turning point of European WWII; Allies start of taking back France and race to Berlin; foothold on European continent
Agreement between Chamberlain and Hitler that Germany would not conquer any more land, and if did, would declare war
us economy after world war II
Gross National Product more than doubled