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56 terms

Sensory Structure and Function

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accommodation
adjustment
aqueous humor
liquid that flows through the anterior and posterior eye chambers in the space between the cornea and the lens
astigmatism
condition in which the eye cannot bring horizontal and vertical lines into focus at the same time, causing blurry vision, as a result of irregularities in the curvature of the cornea and lens
auricle
flap of cartilage and skin that comprises the outer ear; external ear, pinna
cochlea
snail-shaped organ of the inner ear; the essential organ of hearing
cones
specialized neurons concentrated in the retina's center that receive color, add visual acuity, and require a significant amount of light to function
conjunctiva
transparent mucous membrane covering the anterior eye
cornea
the transparent front covering of the eye, easily scratched
eustachian tube
the passage from the throat to the middle ear
gustation
sense of taste
hyperopia
condition in which light rays focus behind the retina; farsightedness
incus
the "anvil," one of three tiny bones within the middle ear which are set in motion by sound waves
iris
pigmented section over the front of the eyeball that gives the eye its color
labyrinth
the inner ear, including the vestibule, cochlea, and semicircular canals
lacrimal glands
tear ducts
lens
a transparent, crystalline eye structure that converges or scatters light rays before they focus as images on the retina
malleus
the "hammer," one of three tiny bones within the middle ear which are set in motion by sound waves
membranes labyrinth
set of tunnels and chambers in the inner ear
myopia
nearsightedness; light rays focus in front of the retina
olfaction
sense of smell
optic disk
eye region that is not light sensitive
organ of corti
small but intricate organ in the inner ear where the transmission of nerve stimuli begins
ossicle
collectively, the three tiny bones in the middle ear (the malleus, incus, and the stapes) which are set in motion by sound waves
pinna
external ear; auricle
presbycusis
hearing loss that occurs with aging
presbyopia
farsightedness that occurs with aging
proprioception
the sensation of body position in space
ptosis
drooping or sagging of eyelid
pupil
black center of the eye that regulates the amount of light that enters it
retina
the innermost tunic of the eyeball that contains rods and cones and is the origin of the optic nerve. Light rays focus at the retina in normal vision
rods
specialized neurons dispersed throughout the retina, suited to dim light and especially useful in night vision
sclera
outer coating of the eyeball, white of the eye
semicircular canal
section of the inner ear that contains hairlike nerve endings that respond to movement and control the sense of balance
stapes
the "stirrup," one of three tiny bones within the middle ear which are set in motion by sound waves
tympanic membrane
eardrum, vibrates as sound waves hit it; transmits the vibrations to the ossicles
vertigo
sensation of rotation or movement of self or surroundings
vitreous humor
a transparent, gelatin-like material that fills the space behind the lens of the eye
optic disk
area of the retina that lacks photoreceptors
choroid
heavily pigmented layer that prevents light scattering within the eye
ciliary body
contains muscle that controls the shape of the lens
pinna, external acoustic meatus, tympanic membrane
structures composing the outer ear
cochlea, semicircular canals, vestibule
structures composing the bony or osseous labyrinth
pharyngotympanic tube
allows pressure in the middle ear to be equalized with the atmospheric pressure
semicircular canals, vestibule
contain receptors for the sense of equilibrium
oval window
transmits the vibrations from the stirrup to the fluid in the inner ear
ciliary muscle
structure that alters the shape of the lens for accomodation
fovea centralis
depressed are in the retina that is the point of clearest vision
endolymph
fluid contained within the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear
perilymph
fluid in the inner ear contained within the bony labyrinth surrounding the membranous labyrinth
static equilibrium
sense of knowing the position of the head in relation to gravity
cochlear nerve
branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve that carries hearing impulses
optic nerve
nerve that carries visual impulses from the retina to the brain
opthalmic nerve
branch of the fifth cranial nerve that carries impulses of pain, touch, and temperature from the eye to the brain
oculomotor nerve
largest of the three cranial nerves that carry motor fibers to the eyeball muscles
kinesthsia
sense of body movement
free nerve ending
receptors that detect changes in temperature