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28 terms

Sociology: types of social groups & the family

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group
two or more individuals who interact, share goals and norms, and have a subjective awareness as "we."
dyad
a group consisting of exactly two people
triad
group consisting of exactly three people
Georg Simmel
dyad/triad distinction can have critical consequences for group behavior
triadic segregation
tendency for triads to segregate into a pair and an isolate (a single person); triad tends to segregate into a coalition of the dyad against the isolate
group size effects
effects of group number on group behavior independent of the personality characteristics of the members themselves
Charles Horton Cooley
introduced concept of primary group
primary group
group consisting of intimate, face-to-face interaction and relatively long-lasting relationships (ex: family, early peer group)
secondary groups
those that are larger in membership, less intimate, and less long-lasting. Tend to be less significant in the emotional lives of people (ex: all students at a college or university, all people in neighborhood, all people in a corporation)
expressive needs
socioemotional needs; human desires like intimacy, companionship, emotional support
instrumental needs
task-oriented needs
reference groups
those to which you may or may not belong but use as a standard for evaluating your values, attitudes, and behaviors; not "groups" in the sense that the individual interacts within/in them
W.I. Thomas
concept of in-groups vs. out-groups/us vs. them
attribution theory
principle that we all make inferences about the personalities of others, such as concluding what the other is "really like."
attribution error
errors made in attributing causes for people's behavior to their membership in a particular group, such as a racial group
social network
set of links between individuals, between groups, or between other social units
family
primary group of people—usually related by ancestry, marriage, or adoption, who form a cooperative economic unit to care for offspring and each other and who are committed to maintaining the group over time
kinship system
the pattern of relationships that define people's relationships to one another within a family; vary enormously across cultures and over time
features of a kinship system
o How many marriage partners are permitted at one time
o Who is permitted to marry whom
o How descent is determined
o How property is passed on
o Where the family resides
o How power is distributed
polygamy
the practice of men or women having multiple marriage partners
monogamy
the practice of a sexually exclusive marriage with one spouse at a time
patrilineal kinship
kinship systems that trace descent through the father
matrilineal kinship
trace decent through the mother
bilateral (bilineal) kinship
traces descent through mother and father
matrilocal
married couples move into the wife's residence/wife's family's residence
patrilocal
married couples move into the husband's residence/husband's family's residence
extended family
whole network of parents, children, and other relatives who form a family unit
nuclear family
married couple resides together with their children