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Terms in this set (36)
the forces of adhesion and cohesion between molecules that bind them together to form larger objects.
the "glue" that holds together.
factors that are a result of intermolecular forces
boiling point, freezing point, solubility.
3 categories of intermolecular forces
dipolar forces, london forces, and hydrogen bonds.
present only between polar molecules.
attraction between polar molecules.
found only in polar molecules.
constant attraction between weak and partial charges.
universal ; affect every type of molecule.
occurs between all molecules whether polar or nonpolar.
very weak, but their cumulative effect can be significant.
responsible for changes in state.
only force with nonpolar molecule(s).
momentary attraction between weak partial charges.
strengthen in proportion to the size of the molecule.
present only between certain types of polar molecules.
when hydrogen covalently bonds with larger atoms such as oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine.
responsible for the cohesion and adhesion of water molecules and for the crystal structure of ice,
constant attraction between relatively strong partial charges.
what causes ice to be less dense in water(why ice floats).
the higher the molecular mass
the stronger the london force between molecules.
molecules of hard/brittle substances arranged in reg. 3-d pattern.
each repeating unit(crystalline solids).
when enough molecules join a crystal
the crystal structure becomes large enough to be seen(like frost or snowflakes).
not arranged in a repeating, orderly pattern.
softer, more pliable substances(rubber, wax, platics).
often grouped together in a long, tangled chains.
temperature at which melting occurs.
when molecules of a solid vibrate so rapidly that they break loose from their intermolecular bonds and flow freely over one another, the solid is said to be this.
freezing which occurs at the same temperature as the melting point
if the molecules of a liquid are gradually slowed down(by cooling) the intermolecular forces will eventually bind them together into a solid. this process is known as.
as the temperature of a liquid rises
its molecules move over each other faster and more freely.
when the molecules of a liquid move fast enough to break the intermolecular bonds that held them together, the molecules escape into the atmosphere. the liquid ________.
the temperature at which boiling occurs.
greatly affected by the pressure upon the liquid.
as pockets of gas form within liquid
rise to the surface and escape, the remaining gas boils.
the greater the outside pressure on the molecule
the faster the molecules must move to escape their intermolecular bonds.
the pressure required to keep a liquid from boiling at a given temperature.
at any given temperature
the molecules of a liquid will have a certain tendency to evaporate or escape the liquid, due to random molecular motion(brownian motion).
the higher the vapor pressure
the greater the tendency of a liquid to evaporate.
the boiling point of a liquid
is the the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid = the atmospheric pressure above the liquid.
the weaker the intermolecular bonds
,between molecules of a substance, the higher the substances vapor pressure and the lower its boiling point.
vapor pressure and boiling point of a substance depend on
molecular mass of its molecules.
the type of intermolecular forces that bond its molecules together.
gases at room temperature
substances with only london forces have high vapor pressures and thus low boling points.
substances with stronger intermolecular forces
will have low vapor pressures and higher boiling points.
substances with very strong intermolecular forces
have the highest boiling points of all.
when one substance dissolves in another substance, the molecules of the 2 substances are completely mixed, forming a uniform mixture.
the substance into which the solute dissolves.
the ability of one substance to be dissolved in another substance.
results from intermolecular forces.
factors that affect solubility
most important factor is the type of molecules that make up both the solute and solvent.
"like dissolves like"
temperature, stirring, and grinding.
substances with polar molecules
are dissolved by solvents with polar molecules. (factors that affect solubility)
are dissolved by nonpolar solvents. (factors that affect solubility)
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