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moral economy

peasants attacked shops and resell the goods at a just and fair price


a state possesses a monopoly over the instruments of justice and the use of force within clearly defined boundaries.

Popular revolts

uprisings and rebellions by peasants because of the increased pressure of taxation and warfare, which were extremely common in England, France, Spain, Italy and Portugal in mid-seventeenth century.

Duke of Sully

chief minister of Henry IV. He could not make the tax system more equitable and just, but he did make it more efficient.His policies reduced royal debts, built new roads and canals, revived industry and agriculture, and encouraged colonization.

Edict of Nantes, 1598

A document of religious toleration issued by Henry IV which granted liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship to Huguenots in 150 fortified towns. This brought peace to France, but also Henry IV's assassination. It was revoked by Louis XIV in 1685.

Cardinal Richelieu

the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy, Built royal power by not relying on nobles and used middle class officers


royal commissioners in French thirty-two districts. This system strengthened royal power, and weakened nobles' political power.

noblesse de robe

newer judicial nobility. The intendants were typically drawn from the noble of the robe

Cardinal Mazarin

was the chief minister of Louis XIV, who became dominant power in the government. Continued the centralizing powers of Richelieu, but in 1648 his unpopular attempts to increase royal revenues and expand the state bureaucracy resulted in a widespread rebellion known as the Fronde


1648-1653, French nobles led a series rebellions against the royal authority. These rebellions were intended to limit rather than overthrow the monarchy.

noblesse d'epee

sword nobility, who were angered by the increasing power of central government.

divine right of kings

the idea that God had established kings as his rulers on earth, and they were answerable ultimately to God alone.

absolute monarchy

the monarch is supreme and can exercise full and complete power unilaterally.

Jean Colbert

French finance minister of Louis XIV, who promoted mercantilism and economic self sufficiency for France.


is a collection of governmental policies for the regulation of economic activities, especially commercial activities, by and for the state.


representative of clergy, nobles and commoners, in some provinces, held the authority to negotiate with Crown over tax. This made French tax system complicated and inequitable.

Claude Le Peletier

Colbert's successor as minister of finance, resorted to the devaluation of the currency and the old device of selling offices and tax exemptions. He also created new income taxes, which nobles and clergymen had to pay for the 1st time. The king, in return, gave them titles of nobility.

War of Spanish Succession(1701-1713)

European nations, led by England, formed the Grand Alliance against France, to prevent Louis XIV from controlling both France and Spain. The war left France battered and weakened, and the financial and social tensions led to the French Revolution.

Peace of Utrech

End the War of Spanish Succession. Louis XIV 's grandson, Philip V, inherited throne in Spain but couldn't be king of France. England was a big winner, with a reward of Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and many islands. It represented the balance-of-power principle in operation, setting limits on the extent to which any one power could expand. The treaty completed the decline of Spain as a great power, and marked the end of French expansion.

Don Quixote

A comedic book written by Miguel de Cervantes in seventeenth century. It refered to "idealistic but impractical" which characterized seventeen-century Spain.


Spain divided its New World territories into four administrative divisions. Each territory has a viceroy, who exercised broad military and civil authority as the direct representative of sovereign in Madrid.


the Crown claimed one-fifth of all precious metals mined in South America. in return, it shipped manufactured good to colonies and discouraged the development of native industries.


means "odd-shaped, imperfect pearl" in Portuguese, was used by late eighteenth century art critics as an expression of scorn for what they considered an overblown, unbalanced style. Baroque style marked one of the high points in the Western culture.

French classicism

the art and literature of the age of Louis XIV. The work resembled that of Renaissance, and possessed the classical qualities of discipline, balance and restraint.


granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support.

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