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history questions and characters for English 12 semester 1 test


Old English


language spoken by Romans

Battle of Hastings

fought in 1066 between Harold and William of Normandy (William the Conqueror)

Middle English

developed as French combined with Old English after 1066


the exchange of property for personal service

Thomas a Becket

Archbishop of Canterbury who was killed in his own church because Henry II was mad at him

Magna Carta

Latin for "Great Charter," it was signed by King John and often recognized at the start of a constitutional government in England

Wars of the Roses

fought between the Yorks and Lancasters between 1455 and 1485

Black Plague

helped cause the decline of the feudal system because it caused a labor shortage

Johann Guetenberg

European who perfected the process of movable type printing

William Caxton

set up the first movable-type printing press in England

printing press

development of this helped standardize English spellings and bring the language into Modern English

James I

king during the latter part of Shakespeare's life, some of Macbeth's story was altered to possibly impress him


original language of Beowulf


where Gilgamesh was from legendarily


author of Illiad

Geoffrey Chaucer

author of The Canterbury Tales

Sir Thomas More

author of Utopia


Shakespeare's birthplace


a sea captain; friend to Sebastian; disquised in Illyria, but still was arrested


Olivia's jester; often sings


he heard the predictions; was told his children would be kings; is killed for what he knows but returns as a ghost


King of Scotland at the beginning of the play; is murdered

Lady Macbeth

ambitious wife of a thane who helps him become king; becomes unstable at the end and sleepwalks

Lady Macduff

calls her husband a traitor for leaving his family


when King of Scotland is visiting his home, he murders the King


eldest son of the murdered King of Scotland; fled to England; King of Scotland at the very end of the play


a steward of Olivia's household; wears yellow stockings (cross-gartered) and is locked up as part of a joke


gentlewoman in Olivia's household; part of joke; marries Toby


a rich countess of Illyria; falls in love with "Cesario"


ends up with Viola at the end


his trip to answer the door provides a bit of comic relief


twin brother of Viola; ends up with Olivia

Sir Andrew Aguecheeck

a companion of Sir Toby; "fights" Cesario over Olivia

Sir Toby Belch

Olivia's uncle; often drunk


a shipwrecked lady, later disguised as Cesario


give themain character misleading predictions

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