Organelles are the cell's "organs".
They are found in Eukaryotic cells. Nuclei have two membrances and communicates with the cytosol with their numerous nuclear pores. DNA is found in the nucleus, in the chromosomes. RNA is also here.
Nucleolus: Inside the nucleus, the nucleolus produces ribosome.
Cytosol: Liquid matter found in cells where the organelles float in it. A lot of cell digestion. Cytosol is full of proteins that control metabolism. Such as, transduction pathways, glycolysis, intracellular receptors, transcription factors.
Cytoplasm: Terms for the cytosol and all the organelles floating in it.
Centrosome: the Microtubule organizing center (MTOC) produces microtubules. In cell division the centrosome splits and makes two, then they go to opposite sides of the nucleus and from each centrosome grows microtubes in a spindle. The spindle is responsible for separating replicated chromosomes into the two daughter cells
Centriole: Ring of nine groups of fused microtubules. Three microtubles in each group. These are both parts of the cytoskeleton. The two centrioles are arranged in a perpendicular fashion.
Golgi: Membrane-bound structure with a single membrane. It packages macromolecules for transport in the cell. The enzymatic or hormonal contents of lysosomes, peroxisomes and secretory vesciles are packaged in membrane-bound vesicles ar the periphery of the Golgi apparatus. Stored processed and shipped.
Lysosome: contains hydrolytic enzymes necessay for intracellular digestion. Lysosome contents are carefully released into the vacuole around the bacteria and kill and digest those bacteria. Uncontrolled release into the cytoplasm can kill cell, necrosis. Enzymes from golgi and RER.
Perisxisomes: protect cell from its own production of toxic hydrogen peroxide. They break it down back into water and oxygen.
Secretory Vesicles: Cell secretions (hormones, neurotransmitters, etc.) are packaged in these vesicles at the golgi apparatus, and then transported where needed.
Cell Membrane: Double layer of phospholipids (lipid bilayer) the exposed heads of the lipid bilayer are hydrophilic (water-loving) they are compatible with water inside and outside the cell. The hidden tails are the opposite (hydrophobic). The membrane acts as a protective barrier to the uncontrolled flow of water. Membrane is made complex by the numerous proteins crucial to its activity.
Mitochondria: Provides energy to cell to move, divide, produce secretory products, and contract. Have a double membrane the outside is smooth. But the inner is highly convulted forming folds in the cross-section. In the cristae sugar is combined with oxygen to produce the primary energy source for the cell. Cellular respiration, makes energy. (ATP) also has DNA, but not like in the nucleus, it has it's own. Mitochondria can divide, hence the need for DNA.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: Continuation of the outer nuclear membrane, responsible for production of hormones and other secretory products. Transports and modifies organelles, highway for cell. Processes lipids, fats and such.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: Proteins are synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum's ribosomes where they are collected in the endoplasmic reticulum and transported throughout the cell. Half of the cell. Transports and modifies organelles, highway for cell.
Ribosome: Packets of RNA. They are responsible for protein synthesis.
Cytoskeleton: Helps maintain cell shape. Its primary importance is in cell motility. It makes the cell move internally and externally.
Cell Wall: Only plant cells have this. It is a protective wall make of polysaccharides. It maintains shape of these cells and creates a protective barrier. Fluid collects in plant cell vacuole and pushes against it., this is Turgor pressure.
Chloroplast: Contains chlorophyll, has a double outer membrane. GREEN. Photosynthesis for food.
Cell Membrane- phospholipid bilayer. Plasma membrane, encloses cell. Allows things in and out of the cell selectively.