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AP Human Geography Unit 1
Terms in this set (102)
1. The dimensions of height, depth, and width within which all things exist and move. 2. A free or unoccupied area or expanse.
How something is laid out; space on Earth's surface.
A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character.
The name given to a portion of Earth's surface.
A geographic area defined by one or more characteristics that set it apart from other areas
the succession of groups and cultural influences throughout a place's history
Culture, society, local politics, and economy
Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface.
Is the ratio between distances on a map & actual distances on the surface of earth.
the way in which areas of the world are grouped together for study
Level of Aggregation
the level at which you group things together for examination
A region defined by recognized political boundaries, such as countries, school districts, city limits and other such imaginary lines.
(or nodal region) An area organized around a node or focal point
A place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
a characteristic that members of a certain group, area, or region all share in common
(n) the state of being the same or homogeneous
everyone speak the same language; people can be different culturally
these are not set by rules or laws; they are determined by major landorms
an area in which people have many shared culture traits
Different regions which support various kinds of life (i.e. forest, grassland, desert, and tundra)
the different biomes and types of land that distinguish one place from another
The transition from one type of habitat or ecosystem to another, such as the transition from a forest to a grassland.
a central point or focus with which a surrounding area is linked on the basis of a given kind of spatial interaction, e.g. a city and its trade area
a place that causes a Nodal Region
The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services.
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
Area of Influence
outlet malls, shoppers travelling from longer distances but making a fewer number of trips
An internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located.
Exact latitude and longitude of a certain place.
The position of a place in relation to another place
Distance north or south of the equator
Distance east or west of the prime meridian, measured in degrees
The way the Absolute Location is written; decimal or degrees, minutes, and seconds
Degrees, Minutes, seconds
0 degrees latitude
90 degrees North
90 degrees South
An imaginary line passing through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England, which marks the 0° line of longitude.
International Date Line
180 degrees longitude
Royal Naval Observatory
Where the Prime Meridian was fixed upon. 0 degrees longitude; in Greenwich, England
The situation of a location
Measurement of the physical space between two places
Exact measurement of the physical space between two places.
A measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating two places. Often relative distance describes the amount of social, cultural, or economic, connectivity between two places.
in a spatial sense everything is related to everything else but those relationships are stronger when items are closer together
Friction of Distance
The increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance
The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
Central Place Theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.
Core and Periphery
The concept of a developed core surrounded by an undeveloped periphery. The concept can be applied at various scales.
Central Business District
The downtown or nucleus of a city where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quite high; and transportation systems converge.
A number of similar things grouped together
urban center with certain attributes that in augmented by a measure of investement support, will stimulate regional economic development in its hinterland
A process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. The term often refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity because they share skilled-labor pools and technological and financial amenities.
a pattern with no specific order or logic behind its arrangement
objects that are normally ordered but appear dispersed
points that form a straight line
wavy pattern; like the heartbeats on an EKG
Land Survey Patterns
metes and bounds, township and range, long-lot patterns; have effect on property lines and political boundaries of states and provinces
Metes and Bounds
A method of land description which involves identifying distances and directions and makes use of both the physical boundaries and measurements of the land.
Township and Range
a rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the US interior
have a narrow frontage along a road or waterway w/ a very long lot shape behind
The total number of people divided by the total land area
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
the number of people per unit area of arable land.
the idea that population is growing faster than the food supply needed to sustain it
The many types of ways and patterns in which human phenomena diffuse spatially or spread across the Earth's surface. Includes Expansion Diffusion, Hierarchical Diffusion, Relocation Diffusion, Contagious Diffusion, and Stimulus Diffusion.
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process
A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places or peoples.
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
The distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person - analogous to the communication of a contagious illness.
a form of diffusion in which a cultural adaptation is created as a result of the introduction of a cultural trait from another place
Maps that use isolines to represent constant elevations. If you took a topographic map out into the field and walked exactly along the path of an isoline on your map, you would always stay at the same elevation.
Maps that tell stories, typically showing the degree of some attribute of the movement of a geographic phenomenon.
Lines joining places that have the same temperature
use colors or tonal shadings to represent categories of data for given geographic areas; countries, states, or counties most commonly use polygons (a map of popoulation density by county in the United States might use five different colors to classify density values)
show lines that connect points of equal value
Dot Density Maps
Use points to represent particular values; facilitate perception of spatial pattern (disadvantage is that data that does not meet the threshold [e.g., only 999 bushels of corn harvested in particular area] does not appear on the map)
Maps that are good for determining movement, such as migration trends.
A type of thematic map that transforms space such that the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area.
shows the size of regions in correct relation to one another but distorts shape
A circular map that shows size accurately at its center, but not distance or shape.
compass directions are rendered accurately
A true conformal cylindrical map projection, the Mercator projection is particularly useful for navigation because it maintains accurate direction. Mercator projections are famous for their distortion in area that makes landmasses at the poles appear oversized.
Projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. It does not maintain completely accurate area, shape, distance, or direction, but it minimizes errors in each.
Goode's Homolosine Projection
shows continents well, distorts oceans
A pattern, plan, representation, or description designed to show the structure or workings of an object, system, or concept
a model that attempts to show the similarities in pattern among similar landscapes
Model that shows the basic layout of a certain kind of city
independent of all geometric considerations meaning that they dont need a reference to space
Demographic Transition Model
A change in the rates of population growth. Before the transition, both birth and death rates are high, resulting in a slowly growing population; then the death rate drops but the birth rate remains high, causing a population explosion.
Concentric Zone Model
A structural model of the American central city that suggests the existence of five concentric land-use rings arranged around a common center.
a chart explaining land costs getting cheaper as you move away from the CBD
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
Geographic Information System
a computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data
Layers of information added to a Geographical Information System.
the study of geographic phenomena in terms of their arrangement as points, lines, areas, or surfaces on a map
Global Positioning System
A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers.
6 orbits, 4 satellites each, 24 total
photographs taken from the air or a high altitude, which may reveal signs of ancient towns, roads, tombs, and monuments both above and below the ground
Satellite-Based Remote Sensing
used for GIS data mapping since 1970's, use a computerized scanner to record data from earth's surface that includes light wavelengths, infrared & radar information; can be used to monitor loss of wetlands & determine health of vegetation on earth
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