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WWI-Roaring 20s Study Guide
Terms in this set (65)
a group of merchant ships that sailed together, protected by warships, provided mutual safety at sea
led radical communists in revolution, gained control of Russia
John J. Pershing
general, commander of American forces in Europe, arrived in France in June 1917 with small American force
Woodrow Wilson's vision for a new world order, delivered to Congress on January 8, 1918, Wilson outlined America's war aims, "peace without victory," idealistic, promoted openness/ encouraged independence/ supported freedom
the right of people to choose their own form of government, led to the creation of many new independent state, raised many questions of which populations would achieve statehood/ under what circumstances
League of Nations
to secure "mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike," would govern world affairs, if a nation was attacked unfairly all nations should come to the aid of the attacked
Henry Cabot Lodge
Republican foreign policy expert, Wilson did not take him to the peace delegation because Wilson hated him--> Wilson's decision angered Republicans (who had won control of Congress in 1918 elections)
payment for war damages
isolationist senators who opposed any treaty that had the League of Nations folded into it, believed US should not get involved in world politics or world organizations
group of senators led by Henry Cabot Lodge, opposed to the treaty as it was written--> some wanted just small changes (ex. Article 10 could lead US into war without consent of Congress which was unconstitutional- language of Article 10 was too vague and demanded that the article not contradict the power of Congress to declare war), prepared to vote for the Treaty of Versailles if changes were made
How did the convoy shipping protect Allied shipping?
provided mutual safety at sea, those made up of British and American ships proved instant success--> shipping losses from German U-boat attack fell sharply, Germany's strategy had failed
What happened in Russia that complicated the war effort?
Russia torn by revolutions--> March 1917: moderate democratic revolution overthrew Czar Nicholas II but kept Russia in the war, November 1917: Lenin gained control, March 3, 1918: Treaty of Brest-Litovsky ended war between Russia and Germany
How did the United States do in fighting? How did Sgt. York symbolize this?
American troops called "doughboys" saw significant action in 1918, fought on defensive along with French, learned quickly and fought bravely, Alvin York (Tennessee) one of America's greatest war heroes, took aim with his rifle and silenced a nearby German machine-gun nest, then dodged flurry of bullets to attack many other machine gunners, even charged one German position with only a pistol, earned Congressional Medal of Honor
How did Wilson promote peace without victory?
for Wilson the war was about peace and freedom, wanted a tranquil Europe, said that victory would mean peace forced upon the loser and the terms would be accepted with humiliation + would leave a bitter memory upon which peace would not stand firmly, used Fourteen Points to emphasize his ideas
What were the main parts of Wilson's 14 points and how were they applied in the Treaty of Versailles?
Points 1-5: To End War
1) No secret treaties.
2) Freedom of the seas.
3) Open markets (no tariffs).
4) Arms reduction (only as needed for protection).
5) Colonial policies good for both colonizer and colony.
Points 6-13: self-determination
Point 14: League of Nations
Treaty of Versailles:
- German War Guilt Clause
- Reparations (Germany forced to pay $56 billion dollars and complete responsibility for war)
- German Sudetenland given to Czechoslovakia
- Russian exclusion + loss of territory
- Failure in Asia--> Japan snubbed with territory
Why did Americans reject the Peace Treaty? What happened to it in the Senate and why? (Refer to WWI/Versailles PPT in March Folder and to Palmer Raid Notes)
Wilson refused to accept the treaty with Lodge Reservations, the Democrats have enough votes (minority by 2 votes) in the Senate to reject the Lodge Reservations, the Democrats do not have enough support to get the 2/3 vote needed to ratify the treaty, the US signs a separate peace treaty with Germany in 1921
car maker who introduced methods/ideas to revolutionize production, wages, conditions, and lives of industries and their workers; known for bringing cars to the common man --> making them available for anyone
rapid manufacture of large numbers of identical products
Ford car: Made in 1908 originally sold for $850 (first car sold for the common man)
experts to improve mass production techniques
moving line for production: workers add a piece at each step --> reduced production time for the car from 12 hours to 90 minutes
flood of new affordable goods available to the public
consumer makes small payment upfront and pays the rest in debt monthly
charging market; economy up, high stock market (good for people buying on a margin)
hibernating market; economy down(ish), low stock prices; stock market slow (bad for people buying on margin because stocks are now worth less than they owe)
buying on margin
form of buying on credit: pay 10% upfront and the rest in monthly payments
Stock price goes up: good, buyers have no problem paying back debts
Stock price goes down: bad, buyers cannot pay back loans
Be able to explain the ways Henry Ford was able to master Mass Production. What happened to the price?
Begins scientific management to improve mass production --> starts assembly line so each station adds one part of the product --> reduced production time --> prices drop
Car: 1916 - $360 1927 - $240
Car owners went up from 10% of population to 56%
How did the automobile change America? (There are several aspects to this answer)
stimulated growth, new freedom, and prosperity
government created a numbered interstate highway system --> people could live farther away from their jobs
more leisure time, stimulated economy
In what ways were advertising and credit able to build a consumer culture?
advertisers sold more (played on desires or fears rather than necessities)
installment buying allowed consumers to pay monthly and encouraged people who didn't have all the money up front to still buy the products on credit and pay monthly
How were people able to amass wealth with the Stock Market?
People bought stocks on a margin, meaning they paid 10% upfront and paid the rest in monthly debts
In a bull market, where the stock prices go up, this is a good deal because the value of their stock goes up, but the dollar amount that they owe to the bank for the stock does not change --> they can pay back their debts AND make a profit
BUT, in a bear market, where the stock prices go down, this is a bad deal because the value of their stock goes down, but the dollar amount that they owe to the bank for the stock does not go down --> they cannot pay back their debts to the bank
What led people to both the cities and influenced the growth of the suburbs?
With the availability of cars, people were able to move farther away from their jobs, so people began creating and moving to small suburb communities; Suburbs were often more conservative and republican
In the cities, there is a lot of growth: with skyscraper technology (because of the large populations in cities) expansion began moving upward
(1931: Empire State Building finished + symbolized power of US)
What hardships did American's face during this time period?
Americans enjoyed the prosperity of the consumer economy; however, America's wealth was poorly distributed
Farm income was declining rapidly, industrial income was still increasing, but at a slow rate, and corporate income was increasing rapidly
trend to emphasize science and secular values over traditional ideas about religion
emphasized Protestant teachings + the belief that every word in the Bible is literally true, believed that the answer to every important moral/ scientific question was in the holy book, ideas especially strong in rural America
issue--> the theory of evolution developed by Charles Darwin, Darwin believed that complex forms of life (i.e. humans) had developed gradually from simpler forms of life, clashed with the Bible's description of creation, 1925- Tennessee passed a law that made it illegal to teach Darwin's theory in state's public schools, high school biology teacher in Tennessee John Scopes challenged the law but as soon as he taught evolution in his classroom he was arrested, Scopes found guilty of breaking the law and fined $100
most celebrated defense attorney in America, traveled from his home in Chicago to Dayton to defend Scopes at the trial
established by the Emergency Quota Act of 1921 and the National Origins Act of 1924, governed immigration from specific countries, results of WWI + Russian Revolution + Red Scare (which strengthened nativist position)
Ku Klux Klan
revived by group of angry men in 1915 on Stone Mountain in Georgia, original Klan formed in South during Reconstruction (largely to terrorize African Americans who wanted to vote), new Klan also targeted Jews + Catholics + immigrants, claimed to stand against lawbreaking and immorality
the banning of alcohol use
ratified in 1919, forbade the manufacture/ distribution/ sale of alcohol anywhere in the US, passed largely on the strength of rural votes, Volstead Act passed later by Congress--> law that officially enforced the amendment
sold illegal alcohol to consumers, gap between the law and individual desires--> filled by large illegal network, people made alcohol in homemade stills or smuggled it in from other countries, secret drinking establishments in cities (speakeasies)
What was the difference between traditionalism and modernism?
traditionalism: rural America, traditional view of religion/ science/ culture, (fundamentalists???)
modernism: emphasized science and secular values over traditional ideas about religion
What was stressed in rural education?
the "Three R's": reading, writing, arithmetic, education beyond that collided with the many farm tasks that needed to be done, muscle + endurance + knowledge of crops and animals more important to farmers than "book learning"
How did religious fundamentalism grow?
many devout Americans believed Christianity was under siege throughout the world, pointed to Soviet communist attacks on Orthodox Church in Russia + Mexican revolutionary assaults on Roman Catholic Church in Mexico, growing number of Christians upset by secular trends in religion/ culture, reaffirmed their belief in fundamental/ basic truths of Christianity--> fundamentalism
What were the facts behind the Scopes Trial? Why was this case important? (refer to reading in First Class)
trial made a big deal because townspeople were convinced that publicity generated by a controversial trial might help their town (population had hugely fallen), when trial nearly over Darrow asked jury to return a verdict of guilt so that case would be appealed by Supreme Court--> Bryan thereby denied opportunity do deliver closing speech which he had labored over for weeks, jury complied with Darrow's request + judge fined him $100, 6 days after trial William Jennings Bryan ate a huge dinner and lay down for a nap and died in his sleep, in 1 year Tennessee Supreme Court reversed decision of Dayton court on a technicality and dismissed the case;
trial didn't end the debate of the teaching of evolution but it represented a significant setback for anti-evolution forces, of 15 states pending anti-evolution legislation in 1925 only 2 (Arkansas + Mississippi) enacted laws against the Darwin theory
What were the goals of the nativists? How did the Quota System apply to this?
goal= suspend (or at least control) immigration, Congress passed law requiring immigrants to take a literacy test after WWI (had to read + write own language to enter) after the Red Scare they feared that communists + socialists from Eastern Europe were coming to US with revolutionary documents [Palmer Raids?]
Quota System limited immigration--> National Origins Act stated that the # of immigrants of a given nationality each year could not exceed 2% of the # of people of that nationality living in the US in 1890 (year before great wave of immigration), Quota System didn't apply to Mexico
What led to the rise of the new Ku Klux Klan? How did Americans oppose this?
new symbols of change led to the revival of the Klan, targeted Jews + Catholics + immigrants as well as African Americans, symbol of American's fear of change;
Organizations such as NAACP and Jewish Anti-Defamation League fought against Klan + Klan's values, embraced idea of racial/ethnic/religious/cultural diversity, "melting pot";
Klan itself grew corrupt--> leaders bribed politicians/ stole from members' dues/ lied to members, withered in importance
How did Prohibition lead to the rise of organized crime?
large illegal network filled the gap between the law and individual desires--> bootleggers and speakeasies, government agents tried to stop flow of illegal liquor but they were shorthanded + demand for alcohol too great, policemen and politicians (esp. in cities) tended to look the other way when liquor was concerned, rationalized actions by saying if people wanted to drink they would drink, organized crime spread into other areas of society under the guise of providing alcohol--> Al Capone's businesses along with alcohol distribution included prostitution + drugs + robbery + murder
How did prohibition divide the United States?
by mid-1920s most city politicians clamored for the repeal of 18th Amendment, but to many rural Americans liquor + crime were tied to other divisive cultural issues of the day, Americans could not reach a satisfactory settlement on the issue until 1933 (21st Amendment)
Comedian and the most popular silent film star (Played the Little Tramp: character part hobo, dreamer and poet)
The Jazz Singer
the first movie with sound synchronized to the action --> changed film history (1927)
Leading sports hero; baseball home-run king
aviator with much adortion; took off from Long Island, NY (May 1927) in the Spirit of St Louis (name of plane) and headed to Paris, France alone and nonstop (33 hour trip)
landed in Paris and became media celebreity dubbed Lucky Lindy or the Lone Eagle
symbol of the new changes for women
a young women who wore short skirts, rouged cheeks, and hair cropped close in a bob
Austrian psychologist who contributed to literary and artistic modernism; human behavior driven by unconscious desires (not rational thought)
Believes people suppress desires, but the tension b/t behavior and subconscious could lead to mental (or physical) illness
American writers of the 1920s; called this because they no longer had faith in the cultural guideposts of the Victorian era --> inspired to search for new truths
F. Scott Fitzgerald
novelist who explored reality of the American dream --> believes it ends in nightmare and it destroys everything (as shown in his books like The Great Gatsby)
Similar themes to Fitzgerald in new idiom --> worked to develop writing style to reflect insights
Why were Americans able to enjoy more leisure time?
With new labor laws, the average workday dropped from 70 hours in 1850 to 45 hours in 1930 and the workweek dropped to 5 days a week instead of 7
In addition salary went up, so now Americans working in the city had a lot more free time and a lot more money to spend --> seek entertainment --> go to the movies
60-100 million Americans went to the movies each week
What led to the growth of the film industry in the USA? Who were some of the significant stars and films?
Because Americans had higher wages and more free time, they looked for entertainment --> went to movies
60-100 million Americans went to the movies each week
Silent movies were good because people of any background could watch them
Soon talkies replaced silent pictures
Charlie Chaplin was the most popular silent film star
How did the radio and phonograph break barriers?
Produced standardized culture by giving people of different regions the same entertainment/things
1920s: Westinghouse company started KDKA radio station in Pittsburgh, PA --> within 3 years there were ~600 licensed stations + over 600,000 radio sets
The radio brought distant events to millions of homes nationwide
Phonograph allowed people to listen to the music from the radio whenever they wants with grooved disc recording and superior sound --> Americans learned specific dances for specific music
How did sports rise in popular culture?
With radio coverage, every major sports event was announced all over the world, boasting nationally famous performers
Great athletes: Babe Ruth (baseball) Red Grange (football) Jack Dempsey (boxing) Bobby Jones (golf) Bill Tilden (tennis)
Sports writers also became more prominent boosting athletes fame even more
WWI had shattered American faith and citizens needed a hero --> sports heroes reassured Americans that people were capable of great dreams
What did Charles Lindburgh do that made him an American hero?
In May 1927, Lindburgh boared the Spirit of St. Louis and took off from Long Island, NY headed to Paris, France alone and nonstop (33 hours)
He landed in Paric and became a media celebrity, dubbed Lucky Lindy and the Lone Eagle
How did flappers challenge society? How did the lives of women change in the workplace and home?
1920s: women were more liberated (no longer centered life around home and family) they wore shorter dresses, more makeup, and danced a lot --> assumed that they had the same political and social rights as any man
Cropped hair in a bob and went out more often
As a result, women tended to live longer, marry later, and have fewer children --> could pursue other interests
With the 19th amendment, women earned the right to vote, and some groups called for women to work in reform movements, run for office, or fight laws to protect them in the workplace
Started search for Equal Rights Amendment
Who were the writers of the Lost Generation? What were some of their most important works?
F. Scott Fitzgerald - The Great Gatsby, The Side of Paradise
Ernest Hemingway - A Farewell to Arms
Eugene O'Neill (playwright) - The Emperor Jones, Strange Interlude
Edith Wharton, Sinclair Lewis, WIlliam Faulkner, Gertrude Stein, T. S. Eliot
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