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Settled in Northeastern port cities, like Boston and NY due to a lack of capital; Catholic; worked as unskilled laborers; 1845-52: Potato Famine; voted Democrat. Did not like: abolition, temperance, and school reform


Settled in Ohio, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Missouri; more religiously diverse than the Irish; Catholics, Lutherans, and Jews, voted Democrat because of the Whig support for temperance, public schools that threatened German values.


Against Immigrants

The Know-Nothing Party

roots in the Nativist party 1854; America's first nativist political party,
directed their hostility against Catholic immigrants from Ireland and Germany

Commonwealth v. Hunt

Legalize Labor Unions;Supreme Court rules that unions are not illegal monopolies that restrict trade Westward Expansion

1821 Mexico

In 1821 Mexico became independent of Spain and was comprised in large part by the future states of California, Texas, New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming

1827, US and Britain

They agreed to the joint occupation of "Oregon" which would eventually be the states of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Wyoming, and Montana(and the future Canadian province of British Columbia)

What happens to all of the territory that the US and British had compromised on?

US receives all of it by 1848

Why did Mexicans invite Americans into Texas?

Initially Mexico to bring stability and order to Texas. However, the Americans brought slaves with them even though Mexico abolished slavery.

The Battle of San Jacinto

The Texans defeated the Mexican Army and declared their independence in 1836.

Why'd the Germans and the Irish vote Democratic?

1. "common man"
2. They do NOT like abolition (fear of job markets)
3. Both oppose Whigs (hate public school reforms, and temperance)

Whigs in 1840-1841

- Wanted a central bank to regulate currency
- A tariff that would both protect industries and generate revenue for internal improvements.

Who becomes president after William Henry Harrison?

John Tyler (His VP)

John Tyler

- Former Democrat from VA; goes onto serve in the CSA legislature
- Vetoed EVERYTHING the Whigs wanted
- Whigs hate him
- Tried to recover politically by focusing on foreign affairs
- Webster-Ashburton Treaty: resolved dispute over Maine's northern boundary
- Attempted to annex Texas (opposed by Whigs, Democrats, and abolitionist

Manifest Destiny

- Describes America's right to westward expansion towards the Pacific Ocean.
- Sometimes relates to Biblical imagery
- Saw expansion as way to connect the US to Asia
- independent farmers

Election of 1844

Clay v. Polk
- The election is very close, the Irish vote for democrats and the defection of the Whig abolitionist cost Clay NY and the election

Clay (Election of 1844)

indecisive on annexation and runs with a pro-temperance VP making him unpopular with abolitionist Whigs (splinter off into Liberty Party) slaveholders, and Irish and German immigrants

Polk (Election of 1844)

supports annexation of Texas and convinces Northern Democrats to go along with it by claiming all of the Oregon Territory to the 54, 50' line of latitude

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