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Which of the following is the best definition of a constituent?

It is a person who lives in the district represented by a member of the legislature.

As of 2010, how many women serve in the U.S. Senate?


The most common occupation among members of Congress before coming to Congress is


In 2006, ______ became the Speaker of the House.

Nancy Pelosi

Which of the following statements concerning the representation of women and minorities in the U.S. Congress is true?

Representation of women and minorities has increased over the past two decades, but is not comparable to their proportions in the general population.

In each House district there are approximately ______ people.


Which of the following is not a service often provided by representatives to their constituents?

Offering constituents legal advice regarding new administrative laws

Constituency service is so important that

party leaders will not ask any member to vote in a way that conflicts with the interests or opinions of the member's district.

Three factors related to the American electoral system affect who is elected to office in this country, and what they do once they get there. Those factors are

who decides to run for office, incumbency, and the drawing of district lines.

A senator or representative running for re-election is called the


recent years, approximately what percentage of House members seeking re-election won their race?

ninety-five percent

Congress is a ______ legislature with ______ members.

bicameral, 535

Which of the following best explains the small number of women in Congress?

Incumbency is a very powerful resource, and most incumbents have been men.

Over the past several decades, the ______ and the ______ have benefited most from apportionment?

South, West

he process of allocating congressional seats among the fifty states is called


Which of the following statements concerning the process of reapportionment is correct?

In order for one state to gain a seat, another must lose a seat

What unusual action did Texas take after the 2000 census?

Texas redistricted twice, in 2001 and 2003.

One reason why redistricting is controversial is because

computer technologies allow legislatures to know statistically what kinds of people live where and this can be used to give one party an advantage over the other.

What did the Supreme Court declare in Miller v. Johnson?

The racial composition of a district cannot be the primary factor when redistricting

The powers and resources available to government officials that are used to favor supporters are called


Pork-barrel legislation

deals with specific projects and their location within a particular congressional district.

What are the most common private bills proposed in Congress?

bills for permanent visas for foreign nationals

Congressional organization is influenced by all of the following except

presidential directives

Who is the Speaker of the House?

The elected leader of the majority party in the House is the speaker

In general, members of the House seek committee assignments that will

allow them to influence decisions that are of special importance to voters in their districts

In the House of Representatives, the majority leader

is subordinate to the Speaker of the House

Who has the most real power in the Senate?

the majority and minority leaders

Which of the following is not a task for which congressional party leaders are responsible?

the organization for the re-election strategies of the incumbents

The House Ways and Means Committee has jurisdiction over which of the following areas?

taxes, trade, and entitlement programs

Who decides which committee assignments members of House of Representatives receive?

each party's own committee on committees

The jurisdiction of standing committees

is defined by the subject matter of legislation, which often parallels the major cabinet departments or agencies

The need to divide the labor of legislation is best exemplified in what formal structure of Congress?

the establishment of standing committees

Under the original Constitution, senators

were appointed by state legislatures

Congressional leaders form ______ committees when they want to take up an issue that falls between the jurisdiction of existing committees, to highlight an issue, or to investigate a particular problem.


Conference committees are

temporary, involve members from both houses of Congress, and are charged with reaching a compromise on legislation once it has been passed by both the House and the Senate.

Organizational reforms instituted by Congress in the 1970s attempted to

fragment power by reducing the power of committee chairs

Which of the following is not a task of congressional staff members?

debating and voting in subcommittee meetings

The Congressional Research Service and the Government Accountability Office are examples of

staff agencies

Which of the following is the best definition of a congressional caucus?

unofficial groups of representatives or senators sharing similar interests or opinions

Agencies in Congress designed to oversee administrative agencies and evaluate presidential proposals are called

staff agencies

Approximately what percentage of proposed bills die in committee?

95 percent

he determination of the time and structure of floor debate on a bill, in the House of Representatives, is up to the

rules committee

How long is the term of office for a U.S. Senator?

six years

"Closed rule" and "open rule" refer to congressional provisions regarding

floor debate on a bill

Cloture is

the process by which three-fifths of the senate can end a filibuster

A filibuster allows members of the Senate to

prevent a vote on a bill by speaking continuously on the floor

When the House and the Senate coordinate two versions of the same bill, they will often use a ______ to obtain a single unified bill.


How can a president's veto be overridden by Congress?

by two-thirds vote in both houses

Congress adjourns during a ten-day period after presenting the president with a bill, and the president takes no action. This is known as a

pocket veto

Which of the following is not an important influence on the legislative agenda of Congress?

the federal courts

"Astroturf lobbying" refers to the practice whereby

a special interest group simulating a grass-roots movement works with well-organized campaigns and petitions

In addition to pressuring members of Congress to vote a certain way on a bill, interest groups also have substantial influence in

setting the legislative agenda

Which is the best description of the K Street Project?

It was an attempt to place former Republican staffers in key lobbying positions to help ensure a large flow of corporate donations to the Republican Party.

Which of the following best describes a way in which the House differs from the Senate?

the House is more centralized and organized than the Senate

Why does the House have greater party unity than the Senate?

House leaders have more organizational control over the actions of representatives than Senate leaders

A vote on which 50 percent or more of the members of one party take one position while at least 50 percent of the members of the other party take the opposing position is called

a party-unity vote

Which statement about a party unity vote is true?

In 2005, party unity voting was close to an all-time high

Which of the following best describes the organizational changes made in Congress during the 1990s?

Attempts were made to concentrate more power into the hands of party leaders

Which of the following is not a resource congressional party leaders have at their disposal to secure the unity and cooperation of their members?

constituency service

When two members of Congress who share no common interests agree to support each other's bills, the practice is called


Oversight can best be described as

the efforts of congress to supervise the manner in which its laws are implemented by the executive branch

The Senate's constitutional power of advice and consent extends to which of the following?

The president's power to make treaties with other nations

A(n) ______ has the same status as a treaty, but does not require Senate approval.

executive agreement

The role the House of Representatives plays in impeachments can best be compared with that of a

grand jury

The idea of ______ identifies the best representative as the one who shares a similar racial, ethnic, religious, or occupational background with those he or she represents.

sociological representation

The two presidents to be impeached by the House of Representatives were Bill Clinton and

Andrew Johnson

Members of Congress can represent the people in two ways: as a ______, a member of Congress acts on the express preferences of his or her constituency; as a ______, a member is more loosely tied to constituents and makes the decisions he or she thinks are best.

delegate; trustee

What are the greatest dangers with a trustee model of representation?

Members of Congress may become inattentive to the wishes and opinions of their constituents

One problem with the delegate model of representation is

That few people are well informed about all political issues

Responsibility for communication among party members in Congress lies with the

whip system

The frequency with which they must seek re-election makes members of the House

more responsive to the needs of local interest groups in the districts they represent

Which idea of representation says that a legislator should be viewed as someone whom voters hire to represent their interests?

agency representation

Which of the following is not included in the classification scheme of bills considered by the Texas legislature?


The 80h Legislature of Texas (2007) passed _________ bills and sent them on to the governor for his signature.


Every bill introduced in the Texas legislature is assigned to a ____________ committee.


The vast majority of bills are _____________, which means that they are set aside and never brought forward for consideration. (Texas)


Debate on the House floor is ____________


Debate on the Senate floor is ______________

Unrestricted, thereby allowing for filibuster

The purpose of the ________________ committee is to reach a compromise on different versions of the same legislation coming from the House and Senate.


The governor may take any of the following actions, except:

override a veto

If the governor fails to sign a bill within ten days of receiving it, _____________

the bill becomes a law

The comptroller must certify the state's projected _____________ before the House and Senate may approve the budget.

total revenues for two years

Which of the following is not a constitutional requirement for holding a seat in the Texas House of Representatives?

a natural-born U.S. citizen

The ____________________ and _______________ are considered to be two of the most powerful politicians in the state of Texas.

Speaker of the House; Lieutenant governor

Which of the following is not a constitutional requirement for holding a seat in the Texas Senate?

a natural-born U.S. citizen

There are _________members of the Texas Senate and ________ members of the Texas House.

31; 150

Texas legislators receive a salary of $__________ per year.


The regular legislative session in Texas is limited to ________ days in ______________ years.

140; odd-numbered

The ___________ may convene a special session if the legislature fails to complete important work during the regular session.


The special session is limited to a maximum of ________ days and may only deal with topics specified by the _____________

30, governor

Revenue bills must originate in the Texas _____________


The 80th Legislature considered almost __________ bills during the 2007 legislative session. (Texas)


The office of the presidency was established by ______ of the Constitution.

Article II

In undertaking the campaign against the Taliban in 2001, George W. Bush

sought and received congressional authorization for the bombing, but not a declaration of war

The power to declare war is given to whom under the Constitution?

Both houses of congress

The president must share foreign policy powers with


The ______ asserted that the president could send American troops into action abroad only in the event of a declaration of war or other statutory authorization by Congress, or if American troops were attacked or directly endangered.

War Powers resolution of 1973

The goal of the War Powers Resolution was to

limit the power of the president to commit American troops to military action without authorization from Congress

When North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950,

Truman sent American troops to Korea without asking for a declaration of war

When Dwight Eisenhower sent federal troops into Little Rock High School in 1957, it demonstrated that

The president may make unilateral use of the emergency powers to protect states against domestic disorder

Which of the following statements about how different presidents have used the power of amnesty or pardon is false?

George Washington declared amnesty to all Americans who fought for the British during the War for Independence

Why was George Washington's reception of Edmond Genet as ambassador of France during the French Revolution so significant?

It reflected the authority of the President to officially recognize specific regimes as the sovereign power of a nation when there is doubt as to who rules

Through the act of delegating powers, the national structure of government in the 1930s went from ______ to ______.

legislatively centered, president centered

Which of the following attributes did the framers intend for the office of the president to possess?


In order to get around the need for Senate approval of treaties, many contemporary presidents have made use of ______ in foreign affairs.

executive agreements

Executive agreements differ from formal treaties in that they

do not have to be approved by the Senate

Which statement concerning secret agreements between the president and foreign nations is incorrect?

Presidents have always fully complied with Congress's reporting requirements

The president has the power to appoint which of the following positions?

cabinet secretaries

Why is the president's State of the Union address important?

It is an opportunity for the President to set the legislative agenda by initiating proposals and directing the public's attention to the executive's goals

What is required for Congress to override a presidential veto?

two-thirds of both houses of congress

Richard Nixon claimed ______ when he refused to turn over secret White House tapes to congressional investigators.

executive priviledge

In United States v. Nixon, the Supreme Court

required Nixon to turn over the secret tapes to congress

The State of the Union address is

mandated by the Constitution

The president's power to set the debate concerning public policy in Congress is called

a legislative initiative

What did the framers mean to accomplish by indirect election of the president?

to make the president responsible to state and national legislatures

An executive order is

a rule or regulation initiated unilaterally by the president, with the status of a law

Which of the following has caused an increase in the president's delegated powers?

the increasing scope and complexity of legislation

Federal executive agencies do each of the following in implementing legislation except

seek advisory opinions from the federal courts as to the constitutionality of the rules

Which executive agency has the least discretion, as a result of very detailed Congressional legislation?

Internal Revenue Service

The president's delegated powers come from


The Environmental Protection Agency was created in 1970 by

an Executive Order

The ______ is the informal designation for the heads of the major federal government departments.


The groups of advisers and analysts to the president are collectively called the

White House Staff

An informal group of advisers to the president is often called the

Kitchen Cabinet

The formal group of presidential foreign policy advisers, established in 1947, is called the

National Security Council

The rise of national conventions to nominate the president led to the empowerment of what group?

State Party Leaders

The National Security Council is composed of all of the following except the

Speaker of the House

As a means of managing the gigantic executive branch, presidents have increasingly come to rely upon the

White House Staff

Which statement about the Cabinet is incorrect?

The cabinet does not meet as a group, except during the State of the Union address

The Office of Management and Budget and the Council of Economic Advisers are both parts of

The Executive Office of the President

What is the primary constitutional task of the vice president, besides succeeding the president in case of death, resignation, or incapacitation?

to cast tie-breaking votes in the Senate

The main political value of the vice president is to

bring the president votes in the election from a group or region that would not otherwise be a likely source of support

After the president and vice president, which office is next in the line of succession?

Speaker of the House

Which first lady was the first to seek and win public office on her own?

Hillary Clinton

The first lady is an important resource for the president in his capacity as

head of state

______ is the claim the electorate has given the winner of a presidential election a special authority to carry out her or his plans.

A mandate

In the early 1800s, the system of nominating presidential candidates that left the candidates beholden to their party's leaders in Congress was called

King Caucus

A significant initiative set forth by Lyndon Johnson was

The Great Society

According to the text, what are the three most common ways for a president to expand his base of power?

party support, popular mobilization, and administrative control

When are the president's partisan ties most important?

in dealing with Congress on legislative matters

The technique of popular mobilization dates back to the presidency of

Theodore Roosevelt

Why was it considered shocking when, after the Civil War, Andrew Johnson made a series of speeches seeking public support for his Reconstruction policies?

During the nineteenth century, it was seen as undignified for a president to campaign on his own behalf.

A president who claims to possess a mandate from the American electorate could arguably

that voters have approved the agenda he campaigned on, and that congress ought to approve it

Which of the following tactics did Franklin Roosevelt not use to forge a link between the executive office and the public?

Running extensive national television advertising campaigns

Which statement concerning the White House Communication Office is incorrect?

It allows the president to avoid giving information to the public

What is the general tendency of a president's popularity?

Presidents usually start out popular and decline over the next four years

The Executive Office of the President (EOP) was established

Under Franklin Roosevelt in 1939

The turning point in American politics toward a president-centered government came about during the administration of

Franklin Roosevelt

When the White House directs administrative agencies to promulgate specific rules and regulations, this is called

regulatory review

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