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MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Chapter 22
STUDY
PLAY
ROM Grading
full ROM against gravity, full resistance: 5

full ROM against gravity, some resistance: 4

full ROM with gravity: 3

full ROM with gravity eliminated (PROM): 2

slight contraction: 1

no contraction: 0
Muscle Strength Rating Scale
normal strength: 5

movement against resistance, but less than normal: 4

movement against gravity, but not against resistance: 3

movement at joint, but not against gravity: 2

visible muscle movement, but no movement at joint: 1

no muscular contraction: 0
Flexion
bending limb at joint
Extension
straightening limb at joint
Abduction
moving limb away from midline of body
Adduction
moving limb toward midline of body
Pronation
turning forearm so that palm is down
Supination
turning forearm so palm is up
Circumduction
moving arm in circle around shoulders
Inversion
moving sole of foot inward at ankle
Eversion
moving sole of foot outward at ankle
Rotation
moving head around central axis

internal: turning toward midline

external: turning away from midline
Protraction
moving body part forward and parallel to ground
Retraction
moving body party backward and parallel to ground
Elevation
raising body part
Depression
lowering body part
Hyperextension
extend body beyond anatomical position
Allis Test for Baby
check for hip dislocation by comparing leg lengths

place baby's feet flat on table and flex knees up, should be same elevation
Ortolani Maneuver
check hips for congential dislocation for baby until 1 year old

supine infant, flex knees, use thumb to hold inner mid-thighs, fingers outside hip touching greater trochanters, adduct legs until thumbs touch, gently lift and abduct to move knees apart and down to they touch table, should be smooth with no sounds
Inspect Baby's Spine
lift baby and pronate

normal C curve on spine
ROM and Muscle Strength of Baby
stepping reflex

baby that slips between hands shows weakness of shoulder muscles
Genu Varum
knees apart when space between knees is more than 2.5 cm

normal for 1 year starting to walk

resolves with growth
Genu Valgum
knees together when space between knees is less than 2.5 cm

seen in 2-3.5 year olds

no treatment indicated

EX: rickets, poliomyelitis, syphilis
Genu Recurvatum
hyperextended knees
Pes Planus
flat feet
Scoliosis
lateral curvature, rotation

seen in preadolescent growth spurt
Lordosis
exaggerated lumbar curve

seen in pregnancy and obesity
Kyphosis
exaggerated thoracic curve

seen in aging
Osteoarthritis
normally cartilage does not regenerate, degeneration in joint cartilage

S&S:
-stiffness in morning and after exercise
-aching during changes in weather
-grating of joint during motion
-limited movement
-poor posture
-obesity
-occupational stress